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Many proteins originally identified as cytoplasmic - including many associated with the cytoskeleton or cell junctions - are increasingly being found in the nucleus, where they have specific functions. Here, we focus on proteins that translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to external signals and regulate transcription without binding to DNA directly (for example, through interaction with transcription factors). We propose that proteins with such characteristics are classified as a distinct group of extracellular signalling effectors, and we suggest the term STRaND (shuttling transcriptional regulators and non-DNA binding) to refer to this group. Crucial roles of STRaNDs include linking cell morphology and adhesion with changes in transcriptional programmes in response to signals such as mechanical stresses.

Original publication

DOI

10.1038/nrm.2016.41

Type

Journal article

Journal

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol

Publication Date

08/2016

Volume

17

Pages

523 - 532

Keywords

Cell Nucleus, Cytoplasm, DNA, Gene Expression Regulation, Humans, Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Nuclear Proteins, Protein Binding, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-yes, Signal Transduction, Transcription Factors, Transcription, Genetic