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BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus (HBoV) and PARV4 are newly discovered human parvoviruses. HBoV, which was first detected in respiratory samples, has a potential role in the development of human respiratory disease. The present study compared the frequencies, epidemiological profiles, and clinical backgrounds of HBoV and PARV4 infections with those of other respiratory virus infections, by evaluating diagnostic samples referred to the Specialist Virology Laboratory (SVL) at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (Edinburgh, United Kingdom). METHODS: Anonymized samples and study subject information were obtained from the respiratory sample archive of the SVL. Samples were screened for HBoV, PARV4, B19, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenoviruses, influenza viruses, and parainfluenza viruses by use of nested polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: HBoV infection was detected in 47 (8.2%) of 574 study subjects, ranking third in prevalence behind RSV infection (15.7%) and adenovirus infection (10.3%). Peak incidences of HBoV were noted among infants and young children (age, 6-24 months) during the midwinter months (December and January) and were specifically associated with lower respiratory tract infections. HBoV infections were frequently accompanied by other respiratory viruses (frequency, 43%), and they were more prevalent among individuals infected with other respiratory viruses (17%), frequently adenovirus or RSV. All respiratory samples were negative for PARV4. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, HBoV was a frequently detected, potential respiratory pathogen, with a prevalence and an epidemiological profile comparable to those of RSV. Identification of HBoV infections may be clinically important in the future.

Original publication




Journal article


J Infect Dis

Publication Date





1283 - 1290


Female, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Male, Parvoviridae, Parvoviridae Infections, Phylogeny