In situ polymerase chain reaction amplification of HIV-1 DNA in brain tissue.
Strappe PM., Wang TH., McKenzie CA., Lowrie S., Simmonds P., Bell JE.
A direct in situ polymerase chain reaction (IS-PCR) assay is described for the detection of HIV-1 proviral DNA in formalin fixed paraffin embedded brain tissue. Biotin-16-dUTP is incorporated during the PCR process and microwave pretreatment of tissue sections ensures that no non-specific incorporation into damaged or nicked genomic DNA occurs. Two methods are compared to detect the biotinylated amplified product, the use of an avidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase complex (ABC) and the application of tyramide signal amplification (TSA) which allows both chromogenic and fluorescence detection. TSA detection enhances the sensitivity of IS-PCR, permitting fewer PCR cycles and preserving tissue morphology.