The fecal virome of pigs on a high-density farm.
Shan T., Li L., Simmonds P., Wang C., Moeser A., Delwart E.
Swine are an important source of proteins worldwide but are subject to frequent viral outbreaks and numerous infections capable of infecting humans. Modern farming conditions may also increase viral transmission and potential zoonotic spread. We describe here the metagenomics-derived virome in the feces of 24 healthy and 12 diarrheic piglets on a high-density farm. An average of 4.2 different mammalian viruses were shed by healthy piglets, reflecting a high level of asymptomatic infections. Diarrheic pigs shed an average of 5.4 different mammalian viruses. Ninety-nine percent of the viral sequences were related to the RNA virus families Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Coronaviridae, and Caliciviridae, while 1% were related to the small DNA virus families Circoviridae, and Parvoviridae. Porcine RNA viruses identified, in order of decreasing number of sequence reads, consisted of kobuviruses, astroviruses, enteroviruses, sapoviruses, sapeloviruses, coronaviruses, bocaviruses, and teschoviruses. The near-full genomes of multiple novel species of porcine astroviruses and bocaviruses were generated and phylogenetically analyzed. Multiple small circular DNA genomes encoding replicase proteins plus two highly divergent members of the Picornavirales order were also characterized. The possible origin of these viral genomes from pig-infecting protozoans and nematodes, based on closest sequence similarities, is discussed. In summary, an unbiased survey of viruses in the feces of intensely farmed animals revealed frequent coinfections with a highly diverse set of viruses providing favorable conditions for viral recombination. Viral surveys of animals can readily document the circulation of known and new viruses, facilitating the detection of emerging viruses and prospective evaluation of their pathogenic and zoonotic potentials.