Biological characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clones derived from different organs of an AIDS patient by long-range PCR.
Dittmar MT., Simmons G., Donaldson Y., Simmonds P., Clapham PR., Schulz TF., Weiss RA.
In order to characterize the biological properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants from different tissues (peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMC], lymph node, spleen, brain, and lung) of one patient, we have chosen long-range PCR to amplify virtually full-length HIV proviruses and to construct replication-competent viruses by adding a patient-specific 5' long terminal repeat. To avoid selection during propagation in CD4+ target cells, we transfected 293 cells and used the supernatants from these cells as challenge viruses for tropism studies after titration on human PBMC. Despite differences in the V3 loop of the major variants found in brain and lung compared to lymphoid tissues all recombinant HIV clones obtained showed identical cell tropism and replicative kinetics. After infection of human PBMC these viruses replicated with similar kinetics, with a slow/low-titer, non-syncytium-inducing phenotype. In contrast to the prediction of macrophage tropism, drawn from the V3 loop sequence, none of these viruses infected monocyte-derived macrophages. The challenge of blood dendritic cells by these recombinant viruses in the presence of tumor necrosis factor alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-4 resulted in a productive infection only after adding stimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Therefore, the biological properties of the HIV-1 variants derived from nonlymphoid tissue of this patient did not differ from those of HIV-1 variants from lymphoid tissue with respect to tropism for primary cells such as PBMC, macrophages, and blood dendritic cells.