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Viral-vectored vaccines are in clinical development for several infectious diseases where T-cell responses can mediate protection, and responses to sub-dominant epitopes is needed. Little is known about the influence of MVA or adenoviral vectors on the hierarchy of the dominant and sub-dominant T-cell epitopes. We investigated this aspect in mice using a malaria immunogen. Our results demonstrate that the T-cell hierarchy is influenced by the timing of analysis, rather than by the vector after a single immunization, with hierarchy changing over time. Repeated homologous immunization reduced the breadth of responses, while heterologous prime-boost induced the strongest response to the dominant epitope, albeit with only modest response to the sub-dominant epitopes.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





4470 - 4474


Subdominant T-cell epitopes, T-cell hierarchy, Vaccines, Viral vectors, Adenoviridae, Animals, Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte, Female, Immunity, Cellular, Immunization, Secondary, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, T-Lymphocytes, Viral Vaccines