Functional and structural characterization of a novel putative cysteine protease cell wall-modifying multi-domain enzyme selected from a microbial metagenome.
Faheem M., Martins-de-Sa D., Vidal JFD., Álvares ACM., Brandão-Neto J., Bird LE., Tully MD., von Delft F., Souto BM., Quirino BF., Freitas SM., Barbosa JARG.
A current metagenomics focus is to interpret and transform collected genomic data into biological information. By combining structural, functional and genomic data we have assessed a novel bacterial protein selected from a carbohydrate-related activity screen in a microbial metagenomic library from Capra hircus (domestic goat) gut. This uncharacterized protein was predicted as a bacterial cell wall-modifying enzyme (CWME) and shown to contain four domains: an N-terminal, a cysteine protease, a peptidoglycan-binding and an SH3 bacterial domain. We successfully cloned, expressed and purified this putative cysteine protease (PCP), which presented autoproteolytic activity and inhibition by protease inhibitors. We observed cell wall hydrolytic activity and ampicillin binding capacity, a characteristic of most bacterial CWME. Fluorimetric binding analysis yielded a Kb of 1.8 × 105 M-1 for ampicillin. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) showed a maximum particle dimension of 95 Å with a real-space Rg of 28.35 Å. The elongated molecular envelope corroborates the dynamic light scattering (DLS) estimated size. Furthermore, homology modeling and SAXS allowed the construction of a model that explains the stability and secondary structural changes observed by circular dichroism (CD). In short, we report a novel cell wall-modifying autoproteolytic PCP with insight into its biochemical, biophysical and structural features.