[Better antibiotic use in complicated urinary tract infections; multicentre cluster randomised trial of 2 improvement strategies].
Spoorenberg V., Hulscher MEJL., Geskus RB., de Reijke TM., Opmeer BC., Prins JM., Geerlings SE.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two strategies to improve antibiotic use in patients with a complicated urinary tract infection. DESIGN: Multicentre cluster randomised unblinded trial. METHOD: The departments of Internal Medicine and Urology from 19 hospitals in the Netherlands took part in this trial. Based on retrospective patient record investigations we performed baseline measurements on the scores of a validated set of quality indicators for antibiotic use in a minimum of 50 patients with a complicated urinary tract infection per department in 2009. A similar post-trial measurement took place in 2012. In 2010 we randomised the hospitals between 2 improvement strategies: a multifaceted strategy that included results of the baseline measurements, education, reminders and assistance with optional improvement interventions, and a competitive feedback strategy, in which the departments only received results of the baseline measurements and non-anonymous results from the other departments in this study arm. The primary outcome measure was improvement of the quality indicator scores. Secondary outcome measures were determinants of improvement of the indicators. (Netherlands Trial Register: NTR1742) RESULTS: The baseline and post-trial measurements were performed on 1,964 patients and 2,027 patients, respectively. Post-trial measurements revealed a significant, but limited, improvement of several indicators compared with baseline measurements. We found no significant difference in improvement between the two strategies for any indicator. The intensity with which the departments implemented improvement strategies was mostly suboptimal, but intensive implementation of a strategy was associated with greater improvement. CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of both improvement strategies was comparable, but limited. For real improvement in antibiotic use in patients with complicated urinary tract infections, improvement interventions should be developed and applied by local professionals themselves.