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Between July and December 2002, we undertook a hospital-based case-control study to identify risk factors associated with typhoid fever in Son La province, northern Vietnam. Among 617 suspected cases, 90 cases of typhoid fever were confirmed by blood or stool culture. One hundred and eighty controls (neighbours of typhoid cases matched for gender and age) were chosen. Participants were interviewed at home using a standardized questionnaire. Seventy-five per cent of cases were aged 10-44 years. No cases in patients aged less than 5 years were recorded in this study. In a conditional logistic regression analysis recent contact with a typhoid patient (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-6.2, P < 0.001), no education (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7, P = 0.03) and drinking untreated water (OR = 3.9, 95% CI 2.0-7.5, P < 0.001) were independently associated with typhoid fever. Improving quality of drinking water must be a priority and health education strategies targeted at individuals with no schooling, and contacts of patients, would be expected to decrease the burden of typhoid fever.

Original publication




Journal article


Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg

Publication Date





819 - 826


Adolescent, Adult, Analysis of Variance, Case-Control Studies, Child, Female, Hospitalization, Humans, Logistic Models, Male, Risk Factors, Surveys and Questionnaires, Typhoid Fever, Vietnam