No evidence to support a role for Helicobacter pylori infection and plasminogen binding protein in autoimmune pancreatitis and IgG4-related disease in a UK cohort.
Culver EL., Smit WL., Evans C., Sadler R., Cargill T., Makuch M., Wang L-M., Ferry B., Klenerman P., Barnes E.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) plasminogen binding protein (PBP) has been proposed as an antigen triggering autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), the pancreatic manifestation of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). We investigated exposure to H. pylori infection, cytokine response and immunological memory to H. pylori PBP in a prospective IgG4-RD cohort in the UK. METHODS: Clinical and endoscopic evidence of peptic ulceration, serological H. pylori exposure and serum IgG4 levels were obtained in 55 IgG4-RD patients and 52 disease controls (DC) with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions with an elevated serum IgG4. Gastric and duodenal tissues were assessed for H. pylori and immunostained for IgG4. B and T cell ELISpot and cytokine luminex assays were used to detect immune responses to H. pylori PBP. RESULTS: 85% of IgG4-RD patients had pancreatic and/or biliary disease, 89% had extra-pancreatic manifestations, and 84% had an increased serum IgG4. Clinical dyspepsia (35.2%), gastritis (58%), peptic ulceration (7.4%) and H. pylori colonisation (24%) in IgG4-RD was similar to DC. In IgG4-RD, gastric tissue contained a chronic inflammatory infiltrate with a low IgG4+ plasma-cell count (<10/HPF; range 1-4/HPF), and duodenal specimens had an increased IgG4 count (>10/HPF; range 7-54) compared with DC (p < 0.01). Th1 and Th2 cytokine response and immunological B-cell memory to H. pylori PBP did not differ between IgG4-RD and DC. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective UK cohort, the prevalence of gastric ulceration, exposure to H. pylori, cytokine response and immunological memory to H. pylori PBP did not differ in IgG4-RD patients compared with DC. This study does not support a role for H. pylori PBP as a microbial antigen in IgG4-RD. KEYWORDS FOR ABSTRACT: Peptic ulceration, Antigens, B cells, T cells, Interleukins, Helicobacter pylori.