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Background: We examined associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IFITM3, TLR3, and CD55 genes and influenza clinical outcomes in Chinese. Methods: A multicenter study was conducted on 275 adult cases of avian (H7N9) and pandemic (H1N1pdm09) influenza. Host DNA was extracted from diagnostic respiratory samples; IFITM3 rs12252, TLR3 rs5743313, CD55 rs2564978, and TLR4 rs4986790/4986791 were targeted for genotyping (Sanger sequencing). The primary outcome analyzed was death. Results: IFITM3 and TLR3 SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; their allele frequencies (IFITM3/C-allele 0.56, TLR3/C-allele 0.88) were comparable to 1000 Genomes Han Chinese data. We found over-representation of homozygous IFITM3 CC (54.5% vs 33.2%; P = .02) and TLR3 CC (93.3% vs 76.9%; P = .04) genotypes among fatal cases. Recessive genetic models showed their significant independent associations with higher death risks (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-6.02, and aHR 4.85, 95% CI 1.11-21.06, respectively). Cumulative effects were found (aHR 3.53, 95% CI 1.64-7.59 per risk genotype; aHR 9.99, 95% CI 1.27-78.59 with both). Results were consistent for each influenza subtype and other severity indicators. The CD55 TT genotype was linked to severity. TLR4 was nonpolymorphic. Conclusions: Host genetic factors may influence clinical outcomes of avian and pandemic influenza infections. Such findings have important implications on disease burden and patient care in at-risk populations.

Original publication




Journal article


J Infect Dis

Publication Date





97 - 104


IFITM3, SNP, TLR3, influenza, outcomes, Adult, Aged, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, CD55 Antigens, China, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genotyping Techniques, Humans, Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype, Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype, Influenza, Human, Male, Membrane Proteins, Middle Aged, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Proportional Hazards Models, RNA-Binding Proteins, Toll-Like Receptor 3