Role of Medicines of Unknown Identity in Adverse Drug Reaction-Related Hospitalizations in Developing Countries: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Teaching Hospital in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.
Caillet C., Sichanh C., Assemat G., Malet-Martino M., Sommet A., Bagheri H., Sengxeu N., Mongkhonmath N., Mayxay M., Syhakhang L., Lapeyre-Mestre M., Newton PN., Roussin A.
INTRODUCTION: The health dangers of medicines of unknown identity (MUIs) [loose pharmaceutical units repackaged in individual bags without labelling of their identity] have been suspected in L/MICs. Using visual and analytical tools to identify MUIs, we investigated the frequency of, and factors associated with, adverse drug reaction (ADR)-related hospitalizations in a central hospital in Vientiane Capital, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). METHODS: All unplanned admissions, except for acute trauma and intentional overdose, were prospectively recorded during a 7-week period in 2013, leading to include 453 adults hospitalized for ≥24 h. The patients or their relatives were interviewed to complete the study questionnaire. MUIs suspected of being involved in ADR(s) were identified through comparison of visual characteristics of tablets/capsules with that of reference medicines (photograph tool), and by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry analyses. Factors associated with ADRs were identified by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The frequency of hospitalizations related to an ADR was 5.1% (23/453, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1-7.1). Forty-eight (12.8%) patients used MUI(s) in the last 2 weeks preceding hospitalization. They were more likely to be hospitalized because of an ADR (adjusted odds ratio 4.5, 95% CI 1.7-11.5) than patients using medicines of known identity. MUIs were mainly involved in bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers. The photograph tool led to the misidentifications because of look-alike pharmaceutical units in the medicines photograph collection. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, there is a need to ensure appropriate labelling of medicines at dispensing and to provide well-suited tools to identify MUIs in clinical settings to improve drug safety and patients' care in developing countries with limited capacities for drug analysis.