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A matched case-control study was conducted in the Maternal and Child Health Clinic (MCH) in Ifakara, Tanzania, during the rainy season in order to elucidate the risk factors for and etiology of diarrheal diseases in children under 5 years of age. Cases (103) and controls (206) were matched for sex and age group. Precoded questionnaires with demographic details, clinical history, and physical signs were completed. Stools samples were collected for bacterial, parasitological, and viral studies. A high number of siblings (odds ratio [OR], 0.86; P = 0.027), the number of siblings surviving (OR, 0.82; P = 0.007), the birth order (OR, 0.85; P = 0.018) and the distance from the house to the water source (OR, 0.33; P = 0.011) were associated with the risk of diarrhea. There were high rates of enteropathogen isolates in stool samples from children without diarrhea (52.23%). Shigella species were the only enteropathogen statistically related with diarrhea (OR, 2.90; P < 0.029). Enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and enteroaggregative strains of Escherichia coli were not related with diarrhea, and neither were Giardia lamblia or Salmonella species.

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Clin Microbiol

Publication Date

12/2000

Volume

38

Pages

4459 - 4462

Keywords

Case-Control Studies, Child, Preschool, Diarrhea, Feces, Female, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Male, Risk Factors, Tanzania, Water Supply