Cholera outbreak in southern Tanzania: risk factors and patterns of transmission.
Acosta CJ., Galindo CM., Kimario J., Senkoro K., Urassa H., Casals C., Corachán M., Eseko N., Tanner M., Mshinda H., Lwilla F., Vila J., Alonso PL.
To identify risk factors and describe the pattern of spread of the 1997 cholera epidemic in a rural area (Ifakara) in southern Tanzania, we conducted a prospective hospital-based, matched case- control study, with analysis based on the first 180 cases and 360 matched controls. Bathing in the river, long distance to water source, and eating dried fish were significantly associated with risk for cholera. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, was isolated in samples from Ifakara's main water source and patients' stools. DNA molecular analyses showed identical patterns for all isolates.