Carriage prevalence and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae prior to 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine introduction: A population-based cross-sectional study in South Western Uganda, 2014.
Nackers F., Cohuet S., le Polain de Waroux O., Langendorf C., Nyehangane D., Ndazima D., Nanjebe D., Karani A., Tumwesigye E., Mwanga-Amumpaire J., Scott JAG., Grais RF.
BACKGROUND: Information on Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage before the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction is essential to monitor impact. The 10-valent PCV (PCV10) was officially introduced throughout Ugandan national childhood immunization programs in 2013 and rolled-out countrywide during 2014. We aimed to measure the age-specific Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage and serotype distribution across all population age groups in the pre-PCV10 era in South Western Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage cluster, age-stratified, cross-sectional community-based study in Sheema North sub-district between January and March 2014. One NP swab was collected and analyzed for each participant in accordance with World Health Organization guidelines. RESULTS: NP carriage of any pneumococcal serotype was higher among children <2years old (77%; n=387) than among participants aged ≥15years (8.5%; n=325) (chi2 p<0.001). Of the 623 positive cultures, we identified 49 serotypes among 610 (97.9%) isolates; thirteen (2.1%) isolates were non-typeable. Among <2years old, serotypes 6A, 6B, 14, 15B, 19F and 23F accounted for half of all carriers. Carriage prevalence with PCV10 serotypes was 29.4% among individuals aged <2years (n=387), 23.4% in children aged 2-4years (n=217), 11.4% in 5-14years (n=417), and 0.4% among individuals ≥15years of age (n=325). The proportion of carried pneumococci serotypes contained in PCV10 was 38.1% (n=291), 32.8% (n=154), 29.4% (n=156), and 4.4% (n=22) among carriers aged <2years, 2-4years, 5-14years and ≥15years, respectively. DISCUSSION: In Sheema district, the proportion of PCV10 serotypes was low (<40%), across all age groups, especially among individuals aged 15years or older (<5%). PCV10 introduction is likely to impact transmission among children and to older individuals, but less likely to substantially modify pneumococcal NP ecology among individuals aged 15years or older.