On the Whereabouts of HIV-1 Cellular Entry and Its Fusion Ports.
Jakobsdottir GM., Iliopoulou M., Nolan R., Alvarez L., Compton AA., Padilla-Parra S.
HIV-1 disseminates to diverse tissues through different cell types and establishes long-lived reservoirs. The exact cellular compartment where fusion occurs differs depending on the cell type and mode of viral transmission. This implies that HIV-1 may modulate a number of common host cell factors in different cell types. In this review, we evaluate recent advances on the host cell factors that play an important role in HIV-1 entry and fusion. New insights from restriction factors inhibiting virus-cell fusion in vitro may contribute to the development of future therapeutic interventions. Collectively, novel findings underline the need for potent, host-directed therapies that disrupt the earliest stages of the virus life cycle and preclude the emergence of resistant viral variants.