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HIV-1 disseminates to diverse tissues through different cell types and establishes long-lived reservoirs. The exact cellular compartment where fusion occurs differs depending on the cell type and mode of viral transmission. This implies that HIV-1 may modulate a number of common host cell factors in different cell types. In this review, we evaluate recent advances on the host cell factors that play an important role in HIV-1 entry and fusion. New insights from restriction factors inhibiting virus-cell fusion in vitro may contribute to the development of future therapeutic interventions. Collectively, novel findings underline the need for potent, host-directed therapies that disrupt the earliest stages of the virus life cycle and preclude the emergence of resistant viral variants.

Original publication




Journal article


Trends Mol Med

Publication Date





932 - 944


Anti-Retroviral Agents, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Virus Internalization