Following a TRAIL: update on a ligand and its five receptors.
Kimberley FC., Screaton GR.
Identification of tumour necrosis factor apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), a TNF family ligand, sparked a torrent of research, following an initial observation that it could kill tumour cells, but spare normal cells. Almost a decade after its discovery, and with five known receptors, the true physiological role of TRAIL is still debated and its anti-tumorigenic properties limited by potential toxicity. This review takes a comprehensive look at the story of this enigmatic ligand, addressing its remaining potential as a therapeutic and providing an overview of the TRAIL receptors themselves.