Risk stratification using SpO2/FiO2 and PEEP at initial ARDS diagnosis and after 24 h in patients with moderate or severe ARDS.
Pisani L., Roozeman J-P., Simonis FD., Giangregorio A., van der Hoeven SM., Schouten LR., Horn J., Neto AS., Festic E., Dondorp AM., Grasso S., Bos LD., Schultz MJ., MARS consortium None.
BACKGROUND: We assessed the potential of risk stratification of ARDS patients using SpO2/FiO2 and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at ARDS onset and after 24 h. METHODS: We used data from a prospective observational study in patients admitted to a mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital in the Netherlands. Risk stratification was by cutoffs for SpO2/FiO2 and PEEP. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Patients with moderate or severe ARDS with a length of stay of > 24 h were included in this study. Patients were assigned to four predefined risk groups: group I (SpO2/FiO2 ≥ 190 and PEEP < 10 cm H2O), group II (SpO2/FiO2 ≥ 190 and PEEP ≥ 10 cm), group III (SpO2/FiO2 < 190 and PEEP < 10 cm H2O) and group IV (SpO2/FiO2 < 190 and PEEP ≥ 10 cm H2O). RESULTS: The analysis included 456 patients. SpO2/FiO2 and PaO2/FiO2 had a strong relationship (P < 0.001, R 2 = 0.676) that could be described in a linear regression equation (SpO2/FiO2 = 42.6 + 1.0 * PaO2/FiO2). Risk stratification at initial ARDS diagnosis resulted in groups that had no differences in in-hospital mortality. Risk stratification at 24 h resulted in groups with increasing mortality rates. The association between group assignment at 24 h and outcome was confounded by several factors, including APACHE IV scores, arterial pH and plasma lactate levels, and vasopressor therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with moderate or severe ARDS, SpO2/FiO2 and PaO2/FiO2 have a strong linear relationship. In contrast to risk stratification at initial ARDS diagnosis, risk stratification using SpO2/FiO2 and PEEP after 24 h resulted in groups with worsening outcomes. Risk stratification using SpO2/FiO2 and PEEP could be practical, especially in resource-limited settings.