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O'nyong-nyong (ONN) fever, an acute, nonfatal illness characterized by polyarthralgia, is caused by infection with a mosquito-borne central African alphavirus. During 1996-1997, south-central Uganda experienced the second ONN fever epidemic ever recognized. During January and early February 1997, active case-finding and a household cluster serosurvey were conducted in two affected and two comparison areas. A confirmed case was defined as an acute febrile illness with polyarthralgia occurring within the previous 9 months plus serologic confirmation or isolation of ONN virus from blood. In affected (n=129) and comparison (n=115) areas, the estimated infection rates were 45% and 3%, respectively, and the estimated attack rates were 29% and 0%, respectively, for an apparent:inapparent infection ratio of nearly 2 in affected areas. In villages sampled near Lake Kijanebalola, Rakai District, the estimated infection and attack rates were 68% and 41%, respectively, and 55% of sampled households had >/=1 case of ONN fever. In conclusion, this epidemic was focused near lakes and swamps, where it was associated with high infection and attack rates.

Original publication




Journal article


J Infect Dis

Publication Date





1436 - 1443


Adolescent, Adult, Age Distribution, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Alphavirus, Alphavirus Infections, Antibodies, Viral, Child, Child, Preschool, Disease Outbreaks, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Seroepidemiologic Studies, Uganda