Mutant KRAS promotes malignant pleural effusion formation
Agalioti T., Giannou AD., Krontira AC., Kanellakis NI., Kati D., Vreka M., Pepe M., Spella M., Lilis I., Zazara DE., Nikolouli E., Spiropoulou N., Papadakis A., Papadia K., Voulgaridis A., Harokopos V., Stamou P., Meiners S., Eickelberg O., Snyder LA., Antimisiaris SG., Kardamakis D., Psallidas I., Marazioti A., Stathopoulos GT.
AbstractMalignant pleural effusion (MPE) is the lethal consequence of various human cancers metastatic to the pleural cavity. However, the mechanisms responsible for the development of MPE are still obscure. Here we show that mutant KRAS is important for MPE induction in mice. Pleural disseminated, mutant KRAS bearing tumour cells upregulate and systemically release chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) into the bloodstream to mobilize myeloid cells from the host bone marrow to the pleural space via the spleen. These cells promote MPE formation, as indicated by splenectomy and splenocyte restoration experiments. In addition, KRAS mutations are frequently detected in human MPE and cell lines isolated thereof, but are often lost during automated analyses, as indicated by manual versus automated examination of Sanger sequencing traces. Finally, the novel KRAS inhibitor deltarasin and a monoclonal antibody directed against CCL2 are equally effective against an experimental mouse model of MPE, a result that holds promise for future efficient therapies against the human condition.