Treatment of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax with chloroquine and primaquine or halofantrine.
Baird JK., Basri H., Subianto B., Fryauff DJ., McElroy PD., Leksana B., Richie TL., Masbar S., Wignall FS., Hoffman SL.
Optimal therapy for infection by chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax has not been established. From 1992 to 1994 during three separate studies, 147 Javanese residents of Irian Jaya infected by P. vivax were treated with either chloroquine (25 mg of base/kg during 3 days or 10 mg of base/kg in one dose) plus primaquine (10 mg/kg during 28 days or 2.5 mg/kg during 3 days) (n = 78), chloroquine plus placebo (n = 50), or halofantrine (24 mg base/kg in 12 h; n = 19). There was no difference in tolerance to or side effects of any of the regimens. Within 14 days of starting therapy, therapeutic failure among these patients was 44% for chloroquine, 5% for chloroquine plus primaquine (P < .001), and 0 for halofantrine (P < .001). After 28 days, therapeutic failure was 78%, 15%, and 6%, respectively. Thus, chloroquine plus primaquine in combination and halofantrine alone are effective therapies for chloroquine-resistant P. vivax.