Survey of community knowledge, attitudes, and practices during a malaria epidemic in central Java, Indonesia.
Sanjana P., Barcus MJ., Bangs MJ., Ompusunggu S., Elyazar I., Marwoto H., Tuti S., Sururi M., Tjokrosonto S., Baird JK.
We surveyed adults in a randomly selected sample of 1,000 households in 50 villages in nine malarial sub-districts in Purworejo, central Java, Indonesia from May to July 2001. The survey assessed malaria knowledge, attitudes, and practices in communities experiencing epidemic malaria to begin exploring broad strategies for controlling the disease in the region. A pre-tested survey instrument consisting of 93 questions addressed demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, knowledge and perceptions of malaria, burden and severity of disease, treatment-seeking behavior, malaria prevention practices, and perceptions of government malaria control efforts. The survey was taken by in-person interview of all subjects. Most (97%) subjects were aware of malaria and more than two-thirds correctly identified mosquitoes as the vector. Forty-one percent of households in both forest/hilly and agricultural/urban areas reported malaria illness in the past year. Thirty-six percent (357 households) owned at least one bed net, 92% of these had been purchased by the owners. However, only 36% of households with bed nets affirmed their use as a means of preventing malaria. Nearly all respondents reported a willingness to accept spraying of residual insecticides for malaria prevention, yet less than 5% were willing to pay a nominal fee (US $3) for this service. Fifty-two percent of respondents reported self-treatment of malaria illness without visiting a health facility. This assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices showed a broad awareness of malaria and its consequences among residents of malarial areas in the Menoreh Hills of Central Java.