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A recent malaria epidemic in the Menoreh Hills of Central Java has increased concern about the re-emergence of endemic malaria on Java, which threatens the island's 120 million residents. A 28-day, in-vivo test of the efficacy of treatment of malaria with antimalarial drugs was conducted among 167 villagers in the Menoreh Hills. The treatments investigated, chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), constitute, respectively, the first- and second-line treatments for uncomplicated malaria in Indonesia. The prevalence of malaria among 1389 residents screened prior to enrollment was 33%. Treatment outcomes were assessed by microscopical diagnoses, PCR-based confirmation of the diagnoses, measurement of the whole-blood concentrations of CQ and desethylchloroquine (DCQ), and identification of the Plasmodium falciparum genotypes. The 28-day cumulative incidences of therapeutic failure for CQ and SP were, respectively, 47% (N = 36) and 22% (N = 50) in the treatment of P. falciparum, and 18% (N = 77) and 67% (N = 6) in the treatment of P. vivax. Chloroquine was thus an ineffective therapy for P. falciparum malaria, and the presence of CQ-resistant P. vivax and SP-resistant P. falciparum will further compromise efforts to control resurgent malaria on Java.

Original publication




Journal article


Ann Trop Med Parasitol

Publication Date





655 - 668


Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Animals, Antimalarials, Child, Child, Preschool, Chloroquine, Disease Outbreaks, Drug Combinations, Drug Resistance, Female, Humans, Incidence, Indonesia, Malaria, Falciparum, Male, Middle Aged, Prevalence, Pyrimethamine, Sulfadoxine, Treatment Failure