Nodules in the conjunctiva, bung-eye, and bulge-eye in Africa caused by Mansonella perstans.
Baird JK., Neafie RC., Connor DH.
Eight patients from Uganda, Sudan, Nigeria, and Zaire presented with swelling of the eyelids, proptosis, or conjunctival granulomas. In 5 patients the cause was Mansonella perstans; in 1, it was a Wuchereria bancrofti-like worm; and in 2, an unidentifiable worm. The morphologic features and histopathologic changes in the conjunctiva and periorbital fat are described and illustrated.