Halofantrine and primaquine for radical cure of malaria in Irian Jaya, Indonesia.
Fryauff DJ., Baird JK., Basri H., Wiady I., Purnomo None., Bangs MJ., Subianto B., Harjosuwarno S., Tjitra E., Richie TL., Hoffman SL.
The combination of halofantrine and primaquine therapies was calculated as a regimen for achieving radical curve of falciparum or vivax malaria in Irian Jaya, Indonesia, and compared with combined chloroquine and primaquine therapies. The patients who volunteered for the study [adult, male, Indonesian immigrants with no previous exposure to endemic malaria, normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, uncomplicated malaria illness, no prior use of antimalarials, and parasitaemias of 0.001%-1.1%] were randomized to receive either halofantrine (24 mg base/kg bodyweight, in three equal doses over 12 h) or chloroquine (25 mg base/kg bodyweight over 48 h, in doses of 10, 10 and 5 mg base/kg at 24-h intervals). Each patient also received concurrent daily primaquine (0.5 mg base/kg bodyweight) for 14 days followed by the same dose on alternate days to day 28. A recurrent parasitaemia during the 28 days of follow-up constituted drug failure. Of the 40 cases of falciparum malaria and 26 cases of vivax malaria treated with halofantrine-primaquine, none had a recurrent parasitaemia (100% efficacy). In contrast, 20 of 30 patients with falciparum malaria and three of 27 with vivax malaria had recurrent parasitaemias after chloroquine-primaquine, giving efficacies of 33% and 89%, respectively. Halofantrine-primaquine was significantly more effective than chloroquine-primaquine against falciparum malaria (P < 0.001) but was similarly efficacious against vivax malaria (P = 0.23). On average, fever associated with falciparum or vivax malaria cleared 17 h faster with halofantrine-primaquine (P < 0.01) although there were no significant differences (P > 0.4) in parasite-clearance times between the two regimens. The halofantrine-primaquine regimen was also associated with a more rapid and significant decline in malaria-related physical complaints.