Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

This paper discusses several approaches to improve quality of research in intensive care medicine. The baseline standard of care is important in randomized controlled trials. If standard of care is low, trialists could consider improving this before starting the trial. Implementation studies and efficacy trials should not be mixed up. Trialists could further try to increase prognostic as well as predictive enrichment, e.g., through biological phenotyping. Robustness of statistical findings can increase by enrolling sufficiently high numbers of patients and minimizing loss to follow-up.

Original publication




Journal article


Ann Transl Med

Publication Date





Intensive care, fragility index (FI), population enrichment, statistics, study design