Frequent Monitoring of C-Peptide Levels in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Subjects Using Dried Blood Spots Collected at Home
Willemsen RH., Burling K., Barker P., Ackland F., Dias RP., Edge J., Smith A., Todd J., Lopez B., Mander AP., Guy C., Dunger DB.
Abstract Objective To evaluate an approach to measure β-cell function by frequent testing of C-peptide concentrations in dried blood spots (DBSs). Patients Thirty-two children, aged 7 to 17 years, with a recent diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Design Mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) within 6 and again at 12 months after diagnosis, with paired venous and DBS C-peptide sampling at 0 and 90 minutes. Weekly DBS C-peptide before and after standardized breakfasts collected at home. Results DBS and plasma C-peptide levels (n = 115) correlated strongly (r = 0·91; P < 0.001). The Bland-Altman plot indicated good agreement. The median number of home-collected DBS cards per participant was 24 over a median of 6.9 months. Repeated DBS C-peptide levels varied considerably within and between subjects. Adjustment for corresponding home glucose measurements reduced the variance, permitting accurate description of changes over time. The correlation of the C-peptide slope over time (assessed by repeated home DBS) vs area under the curve during the two MMTTs was r = 0.73 (P < 0.001). Mixed models showed that a 1-month increase in diabetes duration was associated with 17-pmol/L decline in fasting DBS C-peptide, whereas increases of 1 mmol/L in glucose, 1 year older age at diagnosis, and 100 pmol/L higher baseline plasma C-peptide were associated with 18, 17, and 61 pmol/L higher fasting DBS C-peptide levels, respectively. In addition, glucose responsiveness decreased with longer diabetes duration. Conclusion Our approach permitted frequent assessment of C-peptide, making it feasible to monitor β-cell function at home. Evaluation of changes in the slope of C-peptide through this method may permit short-term evaluation of promising interventions.