Update on vaccines for enteric pathogens.
Riddle MS., Chen WH., Kirkwood CD., MacLennan CA.
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhoeal disease caused by viral, bacterial and parasitic infections is a major global health problem; in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) it is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity in children under 5. Some of these infections also impact large segments of populations in high-income countries (HICs), as well as individuals who travel overseas for work, business or pleasure. AIMS: The aim of this review is to describe the current landscape of licensed enteric vaccines, potential new vaccines on the horizon, and the challenges of development and utilization of vaccines against enteric pathogens. SOURCES: Relevant data from the literature, as well as clinical trials described in European and US registries, were examined in the conduct of this review. CONTENT: The review involves discussion of current licensed vaccines against rotavirus, cholera and typhoid, as well as potential second- and third-generation vaccines against these pathogens currently in the development pipeline. In addition, novel vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, shigellosis and norovirus in advanced development are described. Challenges to the development and utilization of global vaccines are discussed. IMPLICATIONS: Despite advances in population health, food security, improved sanitation and water quality, and the reduction in poverty, acute enteric infections continue to plague global populations. Advancing utilization of current enteric vaccines is of critical public health importance, as is the development of new vaccines, particularly for enteric pathogens where none currently exist.