Short-Term Peripheral Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections: Evidence for Increasing Prevalence of Gram-Negative Microorganisms from a 25-Year Prospective Observational Study.
Ripa M., Morata L., Rodríguez-Núñez O., Cardozo C., Puerta-Alcalde P., Hernández-Meneses M., Ambrosioni J., Linares L., Bodro M., Valcárcel A., Casals C., Guerrero-León MDLA., Almela M., Garcia-Vidal C., Del Río A., Marco F., Mensa J., Martínez JA., Soriano A.
The aim of this study was to describe the etiology and outcome of short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC)-related bloodstream infections (PVCRBSI) in a 25-year period (1992 to 2016) and to identify predictive factors of Gram-negative PVCRBSI. This was a prospective observational study including all episodes of PVCRBSI. A multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for calendar year was built to explore factors associated with a Gram-negative bacterial etiology. Over the study period, 711 episodes of PVCRBSI were identified. Incidence rate of PVCRBSI increased from 0.06 to 0.13 episodes/1,000 patient-days. A Gram-negative bacterial etiology was demonstrated in 162 (22.8%) episodes. There was a significant increase in the proportion of Gram-negative infections (22.6% in 1992 to 1996 versus 33.2% in 2012 to 2016). Independent predictive factors of Gram-negative PVCRBSI were the following: being in the hospital for more than 7 days with a catheter in situ for more than 3 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 2.69), surgery in the previous month (aOR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.40 to 4.09), and antimicrobial treatment with beta-lactams (aOR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.78). In conclusion, we reported an increase in the prevalence of Gram-negative PVCRBSI over the last 25 years. Factors associated with a Gram-negative bacterial etiology were being in the hospital for more than 7 days with a catheter in situ for more than 3 days, having undergone surgery, and having received antimicrobial treatment with beta-lactams.