The epidemiology of malaria
© 2002 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Geographical distribution and public health significance 85 Defining malaria infection risks among human populations 86 Measures of stable P. falciparum transmission 87 Mathematical models used for understanding control 91 Determinants of transmission 91 Models of malaria risk using geographic information systems and remote sensing 94 Health impact of P. falciparum malaria 94 The epidemiology of P. falciparum morbidity and mortality risks under stable transmission 97 Consequential health impacts of malaria 100 Determinants of risks of disease and death 100 Epidemic malaria 102 The epidemiology of P. vivax 103 Imported malaria 104 Bibliography 105 Indigenous malaria has been recorded as far north as 64°N latitude (Archangel in the former USSR) and as far south as 32°S latitude (Cordoba in Argentina). It has occurred in the Dead Sea area at 400 m below and at 2800 m above sea level in Cocha-Mbamba (Bolivia). Within these limits o f latitude and altitude there are large areas free of malaria, which is essentially a focal disease, because its transm ission depends greatly on local environmental and other conditions.