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Studying the antimicrobial drug resistance of nasopharyngeal or nasal carriage isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children is likely to have predictive potential for invasive isolates. Streptococcus pneumoniae nasal carriage was studied in 1422 Vietnamese children. Forty-six percent of 536 isolates showed reduced susceptibility to penicillin and 7% showed intermediate susceptibility to ceftriaxone; and 50% of 518 isolates showed resistance to erythromycin. All isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin and gatifloxacin. Urban and suburban children were significantly more likely to carry drug-resistant isolates than rural children. Rates of non-susceptibility to penicillin and erythromycin increased significantly in the rural province Khanh Hoa in 2003/2004 compared with rates obtained in 1997. An emerging clone of penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae of serogroup 15 was identified, which was widely distributed in addition to the pandemic clones Spain(23F)-1 and Taiwan(19F)-14. Although resistance to fluoroquinolones was not observed, 6 (18%) of 34 isolates had a Lys137Asn mutation in the parC gene. This study shows that drug resistance is increasing in carriage isolates of S. pneumoniae in rural areas in Vietnam owing to spread of pandemic and emerging resistant clones.

Original publication




Journal article


Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg

Publication Date





484 - 492


Carrier State, Child, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Humans, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Mutation, Nasal Cavity, Penicillins, Polymorphism, Genetic, Rural Health, Streptococcal Infections, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Urban Health, Vietnam