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The nuclear matrix protein C1D is an activator of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), which is essential for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and V(D)J recombination. C1D is phosphorylated very efficiently by DNA-PK, and its mRNA and protein levels are induced upon gamma-irradiation, suggesting that C1D may play a role in repair of DSBs in vivo. In an attempt to identify the biological function of C1D, we have employed the yeast two-hybrid system and found that C1D interacts specifically with Translin-associated factor X, TRAX. Although the biological function of TRAX remains unknown, its bipartite nuclear targeting sequences suggest a role for TRAX in the movement of associated proteins, including Translin, into the nucleus. We show that C1D and TRAX interact specifically in both yeast and mammalian cells. Interestingly, however, interaction of these two proteins in mammalian cells only occur following gamma-irradiation, raising the possibility of involvement of TRAX in DNA double-strand break repair and providing evidence for biological functions of the nuclear matrix protein C1D and TRAX. Moreover, we show, using fluorescently tagged proteins, that the relative expression levels of TRAX and Translin affect their subcellular localization. These results suggest that one role for C1D may be to regulate TRAX/Translin complex formation.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of cell science

Publication Date





207 - 216


Bilkent University, Molecular Biology and Genetics Department, 06533, Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey.


COS Cells, Nuclear Matrix, Subcellular Fractions, Animals, Yeasts, DNA Damage, Carrier Proteins, DNA-Binding Proteins, Nuclear Proteins, Recombinant Fusion Proteins, Repressor Proteins, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Blotting, Western, Two-Hybrid System Techniques, Transfection, Mutagenesis, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Dimerization, Gamma Rays, Co-Repressor Proteins, Chlorocebus aethiops