Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria is characterized by relapses arising from the hypnozoite stages in the liver. The only currently registered drug for radical treatment to prevent relapse is primaquine. Primaquine, a prodrug, requires metabolism through the liver cytochrome CYP2D6 isoenzyme to its active metabolite. Mutations in the CYP2D6 gene may thus affect primaquine efficacy. A SNPs genotyping technique was developed to characterize the CYP2D6 genetic variants and tested this in the patients with Plasmodium vivax infection collected in a Karen population on the Thailand-Myanmar border, where P. vivax malaria is endemic. METHODS: Direct sequencing of PCR-reamplified products (DSP) was used to uncover exonic CYP2D6 sequence variations. Subsequently, an allele-specific oligonucleotide probe real-time SNPs genotyping (ASO) assay was developed for rapid detection of the four clinically relevant CYP2D6 variants occurring in this population. These two in-house developed assays were used to genotype CYP2D6 mutations in blood samples obtained from 70 Karen adults. RESULTS: Results showed a high degree of concordance between the DSP and ASO methods. Six CYP2D6 point mutations were identified within the Karen population: C100T, C1039T, G1661C, G1846A, C2850T and G4180C, at frequencies of 0.43, 0.43, 0.76, 0.02, 0.32 and 0.76, respectively. The CYP2D6*2, *4, *5, *10 and *36 allelic frequencies were 0.33, 0.02, 0.03, 0.40 and 0.01, respectively. Alleles conferring an intermediate CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype comprised 46% of the total number of alleles. CONCLUSION: The newly developed ASO assay is a reliable and rapid tool for large-scale CYP2D6 genotyping. The high frequency of the CYP2D6*10 allele in the Karen population warrants further assessment of its association with the radical curative efficacy of primaquine.

Original publication

DOI

10.1186/s12936-018-2579-8

Type

Journal article

Journal

Malar J

Publication Date

15/11/2018

Volume

17

Keywords

CYP2D6, Karen, Malaria, Primaquine, Adolescent, Adult, Child, Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6, Female, Genetic Variation, Genotyping Techniques, Humans, Malaria, Vivax, Male, Mutation, Myanmar, Plasmodium vivax, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Thailand, Young Adult