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Ocular fundus pathology in Plasmodium falciparum malaria is common and has prognostic significance. We have made a collaborative effort to document the ocular features in several populations. Based on examination of 735 patients in Malawi, Kenya and The Gambia by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy with dilated pupils, we have determined that the 5 distinct clinical features (in order of frequency) include retinal whitening, haemorrhages, unique vessel abnormalities, papilloedema, and cotton wool spots. Photographs and descriptions of these are presented, along with a proposed grading scheme.

Original publication




Journal article


Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg

Publication Date





619 - 622


Child, Eye Infections, Parasitic, Fundus Oculi, Humans, Malaria, Falciparum, Papilledema, Retinal Diseases, Retinal Hemorrhage, Retinal Vessels