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We evaluated immune biomarker profiles in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults (n = 398) from 5 African countries. Although all biomarkers decreased after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, levels of C-X-C chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, C-reactive protein, soluble CD163, and soluble scavenger receptor CD14 were significantly higher during ART than in an HIV-uninfected reference group (n = 90), indicating persistent monocyte/macrophage activation, inflammation, and microbial translocation. Before ART initiation, high HIV viral load was associated with elevated CXCL10 and tuberculosis coinfection was associated with elevated soluble CD14. High pre-ART levels of each biomarker strongly predicted residual immune activation during ART. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, C-reactive protein, and interleukin 6 were differentially expressed between countries. Further research is needed on the clinical implications of residual immune dysregulation.

Original publication




Journal article


The Journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date





1029 - 1033


Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development and Department of Global Health, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.


Humans, HIV-1, Tuberculosis, HIV Infections, Inflammation, C-Reactive Protein, Acute-Phase Proteins, Carrier Proteins, Membrane Glycoproteins, Receptors, Cell Surface, Antigens, CD, Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic, Interleukin-6, Anti-HIV Agents, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Viral Load, Cohort Studies, Adult, Africa South of the Sahara, Female, Male, Chemokine CCL2, Chemokine CXCL10, Coinfection, Biomarkers, Lipopolysaccharide Receptors