Saïd Professorship of Vaccinology
For more than fifteen years we have been making and testing vaccines designed to induce T cell responses to the antigens we encode, initially using antigens from malaria, influenza and tuberculosis. We have had most success with heterologous prime-boost regimes using either a DNA vaccine or recombinant fowlpox or adenovirus to prime a response and recombinant MVA (Modified Vaccinia Ankara) to boost it.
Recombinant adenoviruses for clinical trials can now be produced to GMP by the University's Clinical Biomanufacturing Facility. Staff at the CBF work closely with academics to prepare batches of new vaccines for clinical trials.
Two new vaccines (MVA-NP+M1 and ChAdOx1 NP+M1) have been developed to target Influenza A. Adults already have memory T cell responses to 'flu antigens, but over time these fall below protective levels. In clinical trials, the new vaccines are able to boost these low-level responses to very high levels, either alone or in combination with the seasonal ‘flu vaccine. The enhanced T cell responses could be protective against multiple Influenza subtypes.
Recent work has focused on developing vaccines against emerging and re-emerging pathogens, including MERS, Lassa, Nipah and CCHF. A vaccine against MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) has been tested in clinical trials in the UK, and is now in trials in Saudi Arabia, where the virus is endemic.
I am a co-founder of the University’s Oxford spin in–out company Vaccitech, which is developing novel vaccines using the non-replicating viral vectors Chimpanzee Adenovirus Oxford (ChAdOx) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA).
Folegatti P.M. et al (2020) pre-print ahead of publication
van Doremalen et al 2020 pre-print ahead of publication
Phase 1/2 trial of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 with a booster dose induces multifunctional antibody responses
Barrett JR. et al, (2021), Nature Medicine, 27, 279 - 288
Heterologous vaccination regimens with self-amplifying RNA and Adenoviral COVID vaccines induce superior immune responses than single dose vaccine regimens in mice
Spencer AJ. et al, (2021)
Vaccines That Reduce Viral Shedding Do Not Prevent Transmission of H1N1 Pandemic 2009 Swine Influenza A Virus Infection to Unvaccinated Pigs.
Everett HE. et al, (2021), Journal of virology, 95
Native-like SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein expressed by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 vaccine.
Watanabe Y. et al, (2021), bioRxiv
Publisher Correction: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine prevents SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in rhesus macaques
van Doremalen N. et al, (2021), Nature