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Every other week, estimates of antibody positivity rates are published in Office for National Statistics bulletins - summarised below.

14 MarchCoronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 54.9% of the population (95% credible interval: 49.5% to 60.0%) would have tested positive for antibodies against the coronavirus (COVID-19) – SARS-CoV-2 – on a blood test in the week ending 28 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 49.1% of the population (95% credible interval: 43.2% to 54.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 28 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 54.5% of the population (95% credible interval: 47.8% to 64.0%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 28 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 46.0% of the population (95% credible interval: 40.3% to 51.6%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 28 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • Weekly data show a reduction in antibody positivity rates among older individuals in recent weeks, likely because the data do not yet show the impact of second doses of COVID-19 vaccinations; daily modelled antibody estimates by single year of age also show this decline, but also show a more recent increase.

  • Across all four countries of the UK, there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies but the detection of antibodies alone is not a precise measure of the immunity protection given by vaccination.

30 MarchCoronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 54.7% of the population (95% credible interval: 49.3% to 60.5%) would have tested positive for antibodies against the coronavirus – SARS-CoV-2 – on a blood test in the week ending 14 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 50.5% of the population (95% credible interval: 44.2% to 57.2%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 14 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 49.3% of the population (95% credible interval: 41.8% to 59.7%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 14 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, an estimated 2 in 5 people, or 42.6% of the population (95% credible interval: 37.1% to 48.6%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 14 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • The data show a reduction in antibody positivity rates among older individuals during the most recent days in the period analysed; this is likely because of people in these prioritised age groups having received their first vaccine dose but not yet their second dose; this does not necessarily mean they have no immunity protection against coronavirus (COVID-19).

  • For the first time, we have included modelled estimates of the number of people who have received at least one dose of a vaccine; across all four countries of the UK there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies.

16 March - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, an estimated 1 in 3 people, or 34.6% of the population (95% confidence interval: 34.0% to 35.3%), would have tested positive for antibodies against the coronavirus - SARS-CoV-2 - on a blood test in the 28 days up to 3 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 3 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 4 to 1 in 3) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 3 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 3 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 4 to 1 in 3) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 3 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, an estimated 1 in 4 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 5 to 1 in 4) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 3 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • The percentage of people testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies was higher for those aged 70 years and over in England, Wales and Scotland.

    2 March - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

    • In England, an estimated 1 in 4 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 4 to 1 in 4) would have tested positive for antibodies against the coronavirus - SARS-CoV-2 - on a blood test in the 28 days up to 11 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
    • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 6 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 7 to 1 in 5) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 11 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
    • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 6 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 8 to 1 in 5) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 11 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
    • In Scotland, an estimated 1 in 8 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 9 to 1 in 7) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 11 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
    • The highest percentage of people testing positive for antibodies was in those aged 80 years and over in England, in the 28 days up to 11 February 2021.

      16 February - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey, antibody data for the UK

      • In England, an estimated 1 in 5 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 6 to 1 in 5) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 1 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 7 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 8 to 1 in 6) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 1 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 7 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 10 to 1 in 6) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 1 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Scotland, an estimated 1 in 9 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 10 to 1 in 8) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 1 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • The highest percentages of people testing positive for antibodies were those aged 80 years and over in England, those aged 16 to 24 years in Wales and Scotland, and those aged 25 to 34 years in Northern Ireland, in the 28 days up to 1 February 2021.

      3 February - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey: antibody data for the UK: 3 February 2021

      • In England, an estimated 1 in 7 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 7 to 1 in 6) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 18 January 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 9 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 12 to 1 in 7) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 18 January 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 11 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 17 to 1 in 7) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 18 January 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Scotland, an estimated 1 in 10 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 12 to 1 in 9) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 18 January 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • The highest percentages of people testing positive for antibodies were those aged 80 years and over in England and Scotland, those aged 16 to 24 years in Wales and those aged 25 to 69 years in Northern Ireland in the 28 days up to 18 January 2021.

      19 January - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey: antibody data for the UK, January 2021

      • In England, an estimated 1 in 8 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 9 to 1 in 8) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in December, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 10 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 14 to 1 in 8) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in December, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 13 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 28 to 1 in 7) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in December, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Scotland, an estimated 1 in 11 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 14 to 1 in 9) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in December, suggesting they had the infection in the past.

      14 December - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England and antibody data for the UK: December 2020

      • In England, an estimated 8.7% (95% confidence interval: 8.2% to 9.3%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in November, suggesting they had the infection in the past; there is substantial variation in antibody positivity between regions, from 12.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.4% to 14.5%) in London compared with 3.9% (95% confidence interval: 2.8% to 5.3%) in the South West.
      • In Wales, an estimated 5.5% (95% confidence interval: 3.6% to 8.0%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in November, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 3.3% (95% confidence interval: 1.6% to 6.0%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in November, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Scotland, an estimated 7.3% (95% confidence interval: 5.0% to 10.3%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in November, suggesting they had the infection in the past.

      24 November - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England and antibody data for the UK: November 2020

      Analysis of antibodies evidence from individuals who have had the infection in the past show: 

      • In England, an estimated 6.9% (95% confidence interval: 6.3% to 7.4%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in October, suggesting they had the infection in the past; there is substantial variation in antibody positivity between regions, from 10.8% (95% confidence interval: 9.3% to 12.5%) in London compared with 3.1% (95% confidence interval: 2.1% to 4.4%) in the South West.
      • In Wales, an estimated 4.1% (95% confidence interval: 2.4% to 6.5%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in October, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 2.1% (95% confidence interval: 0.7% to 4.6%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in October, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Scotland, an estimated 7.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6% to 10.4%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in October, suggesting they had the infection in the past.