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Every other week, estimates of antibody positivity rates are published in Office for National Statistics bulletins - summarised below.

Also see this blog explaining more about Antibodies and Immunity – how do they relate to one another?

18 May 2022Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

In the week beginning 2 May 2022, the percentage of people estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at or above the antibody level of 179 nanograms per millilitre (ng/ml):

  • in England, was 99.1% of adults (95% credible interval: 98.8% to 99.3%)

  • in Wales, was 98.9% of adults (95% credible interval: 98.4% to 99.2%)

  • in Northern Ireland, was 98.9% of adults (95% credible interval: 97.9% to 99.4%)

  • in Scotland, was 99.1% of adults (95% credible interval: 98.7% to 99.3%)

  • in England, was 95.5% of children aged 12 to 15 years, and 88.7% of children aged 8 to 11 years

4 May 2022 - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

In the week beginning 11 April 2022, the percentage of people estimated to have antibodies against SARS-Cov-2:

  • in England, was 98.8% of adults at or above 179 ng/ml (95% credible interval: 98.5% to 99.0%), and 95.4% of adults at or above 800 ng/ml (95% credible interval: 94.9% to 95.9%)

  • in Wales, was 98.7% of adults at or above 179 ng/ml (95% credible interval: 98.2% to 99.0%), and 95.6% of adults at or above 800 ng/ml (95% credible interval: 94.8% to 96.4%)

  • in Northern Ireland, was 99.0% of adults at or above 179 ng/ml (95% credible interval: 98.2% to 99.4%), and 94.4% of adults at or above 800 ng/ml (95% credible interval: 91.9% to 96.2%)

  • in Scotland, was 98.9% of adults at or above 179 ng/ml (95% credible interval: 98.5% to 99.2%), and 94.7% of adults at or above 800 ng/ml (95% credible interval: 93.8% to 95.4%)

  • across the UK for children at or above 179 ng/ml ranged from 96.1% to 97.2% for those aged 12 to 15 years and from 85.3% to 90.3% for those aged 8 to 11 years 

20 April 2022Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

In the week beginning 28 March 2022, the percentage of the population that were estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at or above a threshold of 179 nanograms per millilitre (ng/ml) was:

  • in England, 98.9% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 98.6% to 99.1%)
  • in Wales, 98.8% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 98.4% to 99.1%)
  • in Northern Ireland, 99.2% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 98.7% to 99.6%)
  • in Scotland, 99.0% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 98.6% to 99.2%)
  • across the UK, the percentages for children ranged from 95.3% to 97.6% for those aged 12 to 15 years and from 83.7% to 85.9% for those aged 8 to 11 years 

6 April 2022 - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

In the week beginning 14 March 2022, the percentage of the population that were estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 above a threshold of 179 nanograms per millilitre (ng/ml) was:

  • in England, 98.8% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 98.5% to 99.0%)

  • in Wales, 98.8% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 98.4% to 99.1%)

  • in Northern Ireland, 99.0% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 98.4% to 99.4%)

  • in Scotland, 98.9% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 98.5% to 99.1%)

  • across the UK, the percentages for children ranged from 95.9% to 97.2% for those aged 12 to 15 years and from 76.6% to 85.3% for those aged 8 to 11 years.

24 March 2022 - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

In the week beginning 28 February 2022, the percentage of the population that were estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 above a threshold of 179 nanograms per millilitre (ng/ml) were:
  • in England, 99.0% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 98.8% to 99.2%)

  • in Wales, 98.9% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 98.6% to 99.2%)

  • in Northern Ireland, 98.8% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 98.2% to 99.2%)

  • in Scotland, 99.0% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 98.7% to 99.2%)

  • across the UK, the percentages for children ranged from 96.2% to 97.1% for those aged 12 to 15 years and from 77.0% to 81.6% for those aged 8 to 11 years

9 March 2022Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, 98.4% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 98.1% to 98.6%) are estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the 179 ng/ml threshold, in the week beginning 14 February 2022.

  • In Wales, 98.3% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.9% to 98.7%) are estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the 179 ng/ml threshold, in the week beginning 14 February 2022.

  • In Northern Ireland, 98.1% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.1% to 98.7%) are estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the 179 ng/ml threshold, in the week beginning 14 February 2022.

  • In Scotland, 98.3% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.8% to 98.6%) are estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the 179 ng/ml threshold, in the week beginning 14 February 2022.

  • Across the UK, the percentage of children who are estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the 179 ng/ml threshold ranged from 93.9% to 94.7% for those aged 12 to 15 years and from 71.3% to 78.8% for those aged 8 to 11 years, in the week beginning 14 February 2022.

23 February 2022 Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, 98.2% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.9% to 98.4%) are estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the 179 ng/ml threshold, in the week beginning 31 January 2022.

  • In Wales, 97.9% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.4% to 98.3%) are estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the 179 ng/ml threshold, in the week beginning 31 January 2022.

  • In Northern Ireland, 98.2% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.3% to 98.8%) are estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the 179 ng/ml threshold, in the week beginning 31 January 2022.

  • In Scotland, 98.2% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.8% to 98.5%) are estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the 179 ng/ml threshold, in the week beginning 31 January 2022.

  • Across the UK, the percentage of children who are estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the 179 ng/ml threshold ranged from 91.7% to 95.1% for those aged 12 to 15 years and from 72.2% to 82.0% for those aged 8 to 11 years, in the week beginning 31 January 2022.

9 February 2022 Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, it is estimated that 98.1% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.7% to 98.4%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 10 January 2022.

  • In Wales, it is estimated that 97.7% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.1% to 98.3%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 10 January 2022.

  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that 98.7% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.8% to 99.1%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 10 January 2022.

  • In Scotland, it is estimated that 98.3% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.8% to 98.7%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 10 January 2022.

  • Across the UK, the percentage of children who would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 ranged from 90.2% to 93.3% for those aged 12 to 15 years and from 63.3% to 72.7% for those aged 8 to 11 years in the week beginning 10 January 2022.

  • Across the UK, between 95.1% to 96.5% of the adult population would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at or above a higher antibody threshold needed to provide protection from new COVID-19 infections for those who are vaccinated; the booster programme has likely led to the rapid increases in antibodies above this threshold seen in older age groups.

26 January 2022 - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, it is estimated that 98.0% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.6% to 98.3%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 3 January 2022.

  • In Wales, it is estimated that 97.4% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 96.7% to 98.0%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 3 January 2022.

  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that 98.4% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.4% to 98.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 3 January 2022.

  • In Scotland, it is estimated that 98.2% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.7% to 98.6%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 3 January 2022.

  • Across the UK, the percentage of children who would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 ranged from 88.0% to 91.7% for those aged 12 to 15 years and from 37.9% to 60.1% for those aged 8 to 11 years in the week beginning 3 January 2022.

  • Across the UK, between 94.1% to 96.3% of the adult population would have tested positive for COVID-19 antibodies at or above a higher antibody threshold needed to provide protection from new COVID-19 infections for those who are vaccinated; the booster programme has likely led to the rapid increases in antibodies above this threshold seen in older age groups.

13 January 2022 - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

The following statistics are the percentage of the adult population aged 16 years and over, that would have tested positive on a blood test for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the specific virus that causes coronavirus (COVID-19). This suggests that they have had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.

  • In England, it is estimated that 97.5% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.0% to 97.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 20 December 2021.
  • In Wales, it is estimated that 96.8% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 95.9% to 97.5%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 20 December 2021.
  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that 97.4% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 96.0% to 98.2%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 20 December 2021.
  • In Scotland, it is estimated that 97.7% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 97.1% to 98.2%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 20 December 2021.
  • Academic research on antibody thresholds, using data from when the Delta variant was the dominant strain, indicate that a higher threshold of antibodies is needed to provide protection from new COVID-19 infections for those who are vaccinated.
  • It is estimated that more than 88% of the population had antibodies at or above the higher threshold with the booster programme likely leading to the rapid increases in antibodies above this threshold seen in older age groups.

23 December 2021Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

The following statistics are the percentage of the adult population aged 16 years and over, that would have tested positive on a blood test for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the specific virus that causes coronavirus (COVID-19). This suggests that they have had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.

  • In England, it is estimated that 95.0% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 94.2% to 95.7%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 29 November 2021.
  • In Wales, it is estimated that 93.6% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 92.3% to 94.8%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 29 November 2021.
  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that 95.3% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 93.9% to 96.5%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 29 November 2021.
  • In Scotland, it is estimated that 95.0% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 94.0% to 95.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 29 November 2021.
  • The percentage of the adult population who would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 has increased among those aged 65 years and over in England, Wales and Scotland, and among those aged 70 years and over in Northern Ireland, likely as a result of the vaccination booster programme.
  • Across all UK countries, the percentage of adults who have reported they have received three doses of a COVID-19 vaccine has increased rapidly since September 2021, in line with the vaccine programmes.

8 December 2021 Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

The following statistics are the percentage of the adult population aged 16 and over, that would have tested positive on a blood test for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the specific virus that causes coronavirus (COVID-19). This suggests that they have had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.

  • In England, it is estimated that 95.3% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 94.5% to 96.0%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 15 November 2021.
  • In Wales, it is estimated that 93.9% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 92.7% to 95.0%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 15 November 2021.
  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that 91.6% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 87.9% to 93.5%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 15 November 2021.
  • In Scotland, it is estimated that 95.0% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 94.0% to 95.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 15 November 2021.
  • The percentage of the adult population who would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 has increased in those aged 65 years and over across the UK, likely as a result of the vaccination booster programme.

23 November 2021 Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

The following statistics are the percentage of the adult population that would have tested positive on a blood test for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the specific virus that causes coronavirus (COVID-19). This suggests that they have had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.

  • In England, it is estimated that 92.8% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 91.6% to 93.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 1 November 2021.
  • In Wales, it is estimated that 91.4% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 89.7% to 92.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 1 November 2021.
  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that 93.3% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 90.2% to 94.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 1 November 2021.
  • In Scotland, it is estimated that 92.5% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 91.1% to 93.7%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the week beginning 1 November 2021.
  • The percentage of the adult population who would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 has increased in those aged 70 years and over across the UK, likely as a result of the vaccination booster programme.

10 November Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, it is estimated that 93.1% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 91.9% to 94.1%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the specific virus that causes coronavirus (COVID-19), on a blood test in the week beginning 18 October 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, it is estimated that 91.7% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 90.1% to 93.1%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 18 October 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that 90.9% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 86.7% to 93.2%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 18 October 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, it is estimated that 92.5% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 91.0% to 93.7%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 18 October 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.

27 OctoberCoronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, it is estimated that 92.2% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 90.9% to 93.3%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the specific virus that causes coronavirus (COVID-19), on a blood test in the week beginning 27 September 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, it is estimated that 90.0% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 87.9% to 91.7%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 27 September 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that 90.8% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 86.7% to 93.3%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 27 September 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, it is estimated that 91.3% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 89.6% to 92.7%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 27 September 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.

16 September - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, it is estimated that over 9 in 10 adults, or 93.6% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 92.5% to 94.5%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the specific virus that causes coronavirus (COVID-19), on a blood test in the week beginning 23 August 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, it is estimated that over 9 in 10 adults, or 91.2% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 89.5% to 92.7%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 23 August 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that over 9 in 10 adults, or 91.9% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 88.4% to 94.0%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 23 August 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, it is estimated that over 9 in 10 adults, or 93.3% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 91.9% to 94.4%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 23 August 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • Across all UK countries, the percentage of adults testing positive for antibodies increased or remained high for all age groups in the week beginning 23 August 2021; antibody positivity for those aged 16 to 24 years is increasing steadily across all four UK countries, with estimates ranging between 86.9% and 88.7% for that age group across the UK.

1 SeptemberCoronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, it is estimated that over 9 in 10 adults, or 94.1% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 93.1% to 95.0%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the specific virus that causes coronavirus (COVID-19), on a blood test in the week beginning 9 August 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, it is estimated that over 9 in 10 adults, or 92.0% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 90.3% to 93.4%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 9 August 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that 9 in 10 adults, or 90.4% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 86.7% to 92.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 9 August 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, it is estimated that over 9 in 10 adults, or 93.6% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 92.3% to 94.7%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 9 August 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • Across all four countries of the UK, there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies but the detection of antibodies alone is not a precise measure of the immunity protection given by vaccination.

19 August - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, it is estimated that over 9 in 10 adults, or 94.2% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 93.2% to 95.1%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the specific virus that causes coronavirus (COVID-19), on a blood test in the week beginning 26 July 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, it is estimated that over 9 in 10 adults, or 93.2% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 91.8% to 94.5%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 26 July 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that around 9 in 10 adults, or 89.1% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 85.0% to 92.0%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 26 July 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, it is estimated that over 9 in 10 adults, or 93.5% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 92.2% to 94.6%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 26 July 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • Across all four countries of the UK, there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies but the detection of antibodies alone is not a precise measure of the immunity protection given by vaccination.

 

4 AugustCoronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, it is estimated that over 9 in 10 adults, or 93.6% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 92.5% to 94.5%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the specific virus that causes coronavirus (COVID-19), on a blood test in the week beginning 12 July 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, it is estimated that over 9 in 10 adults, or 93.2% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 91.7% to 94.4%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 12 July 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that around 9 in 10 adults, or 90.7% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 87.4% to 93.3%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 12 July 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, it is estimated that over 9 in 10 adults, or 92.5% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 91.0% to 93.7%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 12 July 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • Across all four countries of the UK, there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies but the detection of antibodies alone is not a precise measure of the immunity protection given by vaccination.

21 JulyCoronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, it is estimated that around 9 in 10 adults, or 91.9% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 90.5% to 93.0%) would have tested positive for antibodies against coronavirus (COVID-19) - SARS-CoV-2 - on a blood test in the week beginning 28 June 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, it is estimated that around 9 in 10 adults, or 92.6% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 91.0% to 94.0%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 28 June 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that 9 in 10 adults, or 90.0% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 87.5% to 92.3%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 28 June 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, it is estimated that nearly 9 in 10 adults, or 88.6% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 86.7% to 90.3%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 28 June 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • Across all four countries of the UK, there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies but the detection of antibodies alone is not a precise measure of the immunity protection given by vaccination.

 

7 July Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

    • In England, it is estimated that around 9 in 10 adults, or 89.8% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 88.2% to 91.3%) would have tested positive for antibodies against coronavirus (COVID-19) - SARS-CoV-2 - on a blood test in the week beginning 14 June 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
    • In Wales, it is estimated that 9 in 10 adults, or 91.8% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 90.1% to 93.3%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 14 June 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
    • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that close to 9 in 10 adults, or 87.2% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 84.2% to 90.2%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 14 June 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
    • In Scotland, it is estimated that over 8 in 10 adults, or 84.7% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 82.4% to 86.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 14 June 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
    • Across all four countries of the UK, there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies but the detection of antibodies alone is not a precise measure of the immunity protection given by vaccination.

 

22 June Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, it is estimated that over 8 in 10 adults, or 86.6% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 84.6% to 88.5%) would have tested positive for antibodies against coronavirus – SARS-CoV-2 – on a blood test in the week beginning 7 June 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, it is estimated that over 8 in 10 adults, or 88.7% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 86.6% to 90.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 7 June 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, it is estimated that over 8 in 10 adults, or 85.4% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 82.0% to 88.5%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 7 June 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, an estimated 8 in 10 adults, or 79.1% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 76.3% to 81.8%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 7 June 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • Across all four countries of the UK, there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies but the detection of antibodies alone is not a precise measure of the immunity protection given by vaccination.

  

9 June Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, an estimated 8 in 10 adults, or 80.3% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 77.3% to 83.2%) would have tested positive for antibodies against coronavirus – SARS-CoV-2 – on a blood test in the week beginning 17 May 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.

    In Wales, an estimated 8 in 10 adults, or 82.7% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 79.6% to 85.6%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 17 May 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.

    In Northern Ireland, an estimated 8 in 10 adults, or 79.9% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 76.3% to 84.4%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 17 May 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.

    In Scotland, an estimated 7 in 10 adults, or 72.6% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 68.9% to 76.3%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 17 May 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.

    Across all four countries of the UK, there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies but the detection of antibodies alone is not a precise measure of the immunity protection given by vaccination.

     

26 MayCoronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, an estimated 3 in 4 adults, or 75.9% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 72.6% to 79.6%) would have tested positive for antibodies against the coronavirus – SARS-CoV-2 – on a blood test in the week beginning 3 May 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, an estimated 3 in 4 adults, or 76.6% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 72.8% to 80.7%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 3 May 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 3 in 4 adults, or 75.0% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 70.3% to 80.5%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 3 May 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, an estimated 7 in 10 adults, or 68.6% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 64.8% to 73.1%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 3 May 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • Across all four countries of the UK, there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies but the detection of antibodies alone is not a precise measure of the immunity protection given by vaccination.

13 May Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, an estimated 7 in 10 adults or 69.3% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 65.6% to 73.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against the coronavirus – SARS-CoV-2 – on a blood test in the week beginning 19 April 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, an estimated 6 in 10 adults, or 63.2% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 58.8% to 68.3%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 19 April 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 6 in 10 adults, or 63.5% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 57.6% to 71.2%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 19 April 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, an estimated 6 in 10 adults, or 59.2% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 54.8% to 64.4%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week beginning 19 April 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • Across all four countries of the UK, there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies but the detection of antibodies alone is not a precise measure of the immunity protection given by vaccination.
  • Weekly data show a reduction in antibody positivity rates among older individuals in early to mid-March 2021. Antibody positivity has since risen again in the older ages. This is likely to reflect the increase in individuals receiving the second dose of their COVID-19 vaccine.

 

28 April Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

  • In England, an estimated 7 in 10 adults or 68.3% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 63.9% to 73.0%) would have tested positive for antibodies against the coronavirus – SARS-CoV-2 – on a blood test in the week ending 11 April 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Wales, an estimated 6 in 10 adults, or 61.0% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 55.9% to 66.5%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 11 April 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 6 in 10 adults, or 62.5% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 56.4% to 70.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 11 April 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • In Scotland, an estimated 6 in 10 adults, or 57.8% of the adult population (95% credible interval: 52.9% to 63.1%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 11 April 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
  • Across all four countries of the UK, there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies but the detection of antibodies alone is not a precise measure of the immunity protection given by vaccination.
  • Weekly data show a reduction in antibody positivity rates among older individuals in early to mid-March 2021. Antibody positivity has since risen again in the older ages. This is likely to reflect the increase in individuals receiving the second dose of their COVID-19 vaccine.

14 April - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

      • In England, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 54.9% of the population (95% credible interval: 49.5% to 60.0%) would have tested positive for antibodies against the coronavirus (COVID-19) – SARS-CoV-2 – on a blood test in the week ending 28 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 49.1% of the population (95% credible interval: 43.2% to 54.9%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 28 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 54.5% of the population (95% credible interval: 47.8% to 64.0%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 28 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Scotland, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 46.0% of the population (95% credible interval: 40.3% to 51.6%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 28 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • Weekly data show a reduction in antibody positivity rates among older individuals in recent weeks, likely because the data do not yet show the impact of second doses of COVID-19 vaccinations; daily modelled antibody estimates by single year of age also show this decline, but also show a more recent increase.

      • Across all four countries of the UK, there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies but the detection of antibodies alone is not a precise measure of the immunity protection given by vaccination.

30 MarchCoronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

      • In England, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 54.7% of the population (95% credible interval: 49.3% to 60.5%) would have tested positive for antibodies against the coronavirus – SARS-CoV-2 – on a blood test in the week ending 14 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 50.5% of the population (95% credible interval: 44.2% to 57.2%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 14 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 2 people, or 49.3% of the population (95% credible interval: 41.8% to 59.7%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 14 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Scotland, an estimated 2 in 5 people, or 42.6% of the population (95% credible interval: 37.1% to 48.6%) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the week ending 14 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • The data show a reduction in antibody positivity rates among older individuals during the most recent days in the period analysed; this is likely because of people in these prioritised age groups having received their first vaccine dose but not yet their second dose; this does not necessarily mean they have no immunity protection against coronavirus (COVID-19).

      • For the first time, we have included modelled estimates of the number of people who have received at least one dose of a vaccine; across all four countries of the UK there is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies.

16 March - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

      • In England, an estimated 1 in 3 people, or 34.6% of the population (95% confidence interval: 34.0% to 35.3%), would have tested positive for antibodies against the coronavirus - SARS-CoV-2 - on a blood test in the 28 days up to 3 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 3 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 4 to 1 in 3) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 3 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 3 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 4 to 1 in 3) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 3 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Scotland, an estimated 1 in 4 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 5 to 1 in 4) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 3 March 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • The percentage of people testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies was higher for those aged 70 years and over in England, Wales and Scotland.

2 March - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey antibody data for the UK

      • In England, an estimated 1 in 4 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 4 to 1 in 4) would have tested positive for antibodies against the coronavirus - SARS-CoV-2 - on a blood test in the 28 days up to 11 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 6 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 7 to 1 in 5) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 11 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 6 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 8 to 1 in 5) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 11 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Scotland, an estimated 1 in 8 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 9 to 1 in 7) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 11 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • The highest percentage of people testing positive for antibodies was in those aged 80 years and over in England, in the 28 days up to 11 February 2021.

16 February - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey, antibody data for the UK

      • In England, an estimated 1 in 5 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 6 to 1 in 5) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 1 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 7 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 8 to 1 in 6) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 1 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 7 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 10 to 1 in 6) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 1 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • In Scotland, an estimated 1 in 9 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 10 to 1 in 8) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 1 February 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past or have been vaccinated.
      • The highest percentages of people testing positive for antibodies were those aged 80 years and over in England, those aged 16 to 24 years in Wales and Scotland, and those aged 25 to 34 years in Northern Ireland, in the 28 days up to 1 February 2021.

3 February - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey: antibody data for the UK: 3 February 2021

      • In England, an estimated 1 in 7 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 7 to 1 in 6) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 18 January 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 9 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 12 to 1 in 7) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 18 January 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 11 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 17 to 1 in 7) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 18 January 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Scotland, an estimated 1 in 10 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 12 to 1 in 9) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in the 28 days up to 18 January 2021, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • The highest percentages of people testing positive for antibodies were those aged 80 years and over in England and Scotland, those aged 16 to 24 years in Wales and those aged 25 to 69 years in Northern Ireland in the 28 days up to 18 January 2021.

19 January - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey: antibody data for the UK, January 2021

      • In England, an estimated 1 in 8 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 9 to 1 in 8) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in December, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Wales, an estimated 1 in 10 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 14 to 1 in 8) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in December, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1 in 13 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 28 to 1 in 7) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in December, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Scotland, an estimated 1 in 11 people (95% confidence interval: 1 in 14 to 1 in 9) would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in December, suggesting they had the infection in the past.

14 December - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England and antibody data for the UK: December 2020

      • In England, an estimated 8.7% (95% confidence interval: 8.2% to 9.3%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in November, suggesting they had the infection in the past; there is substantial variation in antibody positivity between regions, from 12.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.4% to 14.5%) in London compared with 3.9% (95% confidence interval: 2.8% to 5.3%) in the South West.
      • In Wales, an estimated 5.5% (95% confidence interval: 3.6% to 8.0%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in November, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 3.3% (95% confidence interval: 1.6% to 6.0%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in November, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
      • In Scotland, an estimated 7.3% (95% confidence interval: 5.0% to 10.3%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in November, suggesting they had the infection in the past.

24 November - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England and antibody data for the UK: November 2020

Analysis of antibodies evidence from individuals who have had the infection in the past show: 

    • In England, an estimated 6.9% (95% confidence interval: 6.3% to 7.4%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in October, suggesting they had the infection in the past; there is substantial variation in antibody positivity between regions, from 10.8% (95% confidence interval: 9.3% to 12.5%) in London compared with 3.1% (95% confidence interval: 2.1% to 4.4%) in the South West.
    • In Wales, an estimated 4.1% (95% confidence interval: 2.4% to 6.5%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in October, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
    • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 2.1% (95% confidence interval: 0.7% to 4.6%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in October, suggesting they had the infection in the past.
    • In Scotland, an estimated 7.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6% to 10.4%) of people would have tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test in October, suggesting they had the infection in the past.