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16 November 2022 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK

  • The latest estimated rate of coronavirus (COVID-19) reinfections on 28 October 2022 was 42.8 per 100,000 participant days at risk (95% confidence interval: 42.0 to 43.6).

  • Of all identified reinfections, 93.4% occurred during the period when the Omicron variants were dominant.

  • People who had their second or third vaccination 90 days or more previously remained more likely to be reinfected than people who had their third vaccination 14 to 89 days previously.

  • People who reported symptoms within 35 days of their first infection were less likely to be reinfected than those who did not.

  • The risk of reinfection was higher for those who had a lower viral load (higher cycle threshold (Ct) value) at their first infection and for those in younger age groups.

19 October 2022 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK

    • The latest estimated rate of coronavirus (COVID-19) reinfections on 29 September 2022 was 41.6 per 100,000 participant days at risk (95% confidence interval: 40.8 to 42.5).
    • Of all identified reinfections, 92.3% occurred during the period when the Omicron variants were dominant.
    • People living in larger households or living with a long-term health condition were more likely to be reinfected.

    21 September 2022 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK

    • The latest estimated rate of coronavirus (COVID-19) reinfections up to 3 September 2022 was 44.4 per 100,000 participant days at risk (95% confidence interval: 43.4 to 45.3).

    • Of all identified reinfections, 91.6% occurred during the period when the Omicron variants were dominant.

    • The risk of reinfection was approximately five times higher in the period when the Omicron variants were dominant (20 December 2021 to 3 September 2022), compared with when the Delta variant was dominant (17 May to 19 December 2021).

    • People who were unvaccinated were generally more likely to be reinfected than those who had been vaccinated.

    • The risk of reinfection was lower in people who reported symptoms during a first infection than in people who did not report symptoms.

    20 July 2022 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK

    • The risk of coronavirus (COVID-19) reinfection was approximately five times higher in the period when the Omicron variants were dominant (20 December 2021 to 1 July 2022), compared with when the Delta variant was dominant (17 May to 19 December 2021).

    • Younger people were more likely to be reinfected than older people, from 2 July 2020 to 1 July 2022.

    • The percentage of people who tested positive for COVID-19 and reported symptoms in June 2022 remained similar to that in May 2022.

    • In June, the most commonly reported symptoms continued to be cough, sore throat, fatigue and headache.

    22 June 2022 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK

    • The risk of coronavirus (COVID-19) re-infection was approximately seven times higher in the period when the Omicron variants were most common (20 December 2021 to 4 June 2022), compared with when the Delta variant was most common (17 May to 19 December 2021).
    • Those in older age groups were less likely to be re-infected than those in younger age groups, from 2 July 2020 to 4 June 2022.
    • People who were unvaccinated continued to be more likely to be re-infected with COVID-19 than people who had been vaccinated, from 2 July 2020 to 4 June 2022.
    • The percentage of people testing positive for COVID-19 in the survey who reported symptoms decreased in May 2022 compared with April 2022; this may partly be because of overall decreasing infections in May 2022.
    • The percentage of people testing positive for COVID-19 who reported loss of taste or smell remained at lower levels in May 2022, after decreasing sharply between December 2021 and January 2022 (during the time when the Omicron variants became most common).

    25 May 2022 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK

    • Those who reported being vaccinated recently were generally less likely to test positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) than those who reported not being vaccinated, in the fortnight ending 7 May 2022.

    • People previously infected with COVID-19 continued to be less likely to test positive than those who had not experienced a prior infection, in the fortnight ending 7 May 2022.

    • People who reported that they had travelled abroad in the last 28 days continued to be more likely to test positive for COVID-19 than those who had not, in the fortnight ending 7 May 2022.

    • The risk of COVID-19 re-infection was approximately eight times higher in the period when the Omicron variants were most common (20 December 2021 to 13 May 2022), compared with when the Delta variant was most common (17 May to 19 December 2021).

    • People who were unvaccinated continued to be more likely to be re-infected with COVID-19 than people who had been vaccinated, from 2 July 2020 to 13 May 2022.

    11 May 2022 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK

    • Those who reported being vaccinated recently were generally less likely to test positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) than those who reported not being vaccinated, in the fortnight up to 23 April 2022.

    • People previously infected with COVID-19 continued to be less likely to test positive than those who had not experienced a prior infection, in the fortnight up to 23 April 2022.

    • People who reported that they had travelled abroad in the last 28 days continued to be more likely to test positive for COVID-19 than those who had not, in the fortnight up to 23 April 2022.

    • The risk of COVID-19 re-infection continued to be approximately 10 times higher in the period when the Omicron variants were most common (20 December 2021 to 25 April 2022), compared with when the Delta variant was most common (17 May to 19 December 2021).

    • People who were unvaccinated continued to be more likely to be re-infected with COVID-19 than people who had been vaccinated, from 2 July 2020 to 25 April 2022.

    • The percentage of people testing positive for COVID-19 who reported loss of taste or smell remained at lower levels in April 2022, after decreasing sharply between December 2021 and January 2022 (during the time when the Omicron variants became most common).

    22 April 2022 - cumulative incidence of the number of people who have tested positive for COVID-19, UK

    • In England, an estimated 38.5 million people had coronavirus (COVID-19) between 27 April 2020 and 11 February 2022 (90% credible intervals: 36.0 million to 41.2 million), equating to 70.7% of the population (90% credible intervals: 66.0% to 75.6%).

    • In Wales, an estimated 1.7 million people had COVID-19 between 30 June 2020 and 11 February 2022 (90% credible intervals: 1.3 million to 2.1 million), equating to 56.0% of the population (90% credible intervals: 44.3% to 69.4%).

    • In Northern Ireland, an estimated 1.3 million people had COVID-19 between 27 July 2020 and 11 February 2022 (90% credible intervals: 1.0 million to 1.7 million), equating to 72.2% of the population (90% credible intervals: 56.0% to 90.9%).

    • In Scotland, an estimated 2.7 million people had COVID-19 between 22 September 2020 and 11 February 2022 (90% credible intervals: 2.1 million to 3.3 million), equating to 51.5% of the population (90% credible intervals: 40.5% to 63.6%).

    21 April 2022 - characteristics associated with third vaccination uptake

    Across all ages, of those eligible, the following groups were less likely to have received a third coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination:

    • those living in a more deprived area or identifying as non-white ethnic minorities

    • those working outside the home for five or more days per week

    • those who have been infected with COVID-19 previously

    Additionally, for those eligible aged 18 to 64 years, the following groups were less likely to have received a third COVID-19 vaccination:

    • those who smoke tobacco or vape

    • those working in the hospitality or manufacturing sectors, or who are not currently working, or who are working entirely from home (compared with those working one or two days a week outside of the home)

    • males

    13 April 2022 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK  

    • Most people who reported having been vaccinated continued to be less likely to test positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) than those who reported not being vaccinated, in the fortnight up to 26 March 2022.
    • People previously infected with COVID-19 continued to be less likely to test positive than those who had not experienced a prior infection, in the fortnight up to 26 March 2022.
    • People who reported that they had travelled abroad in the last 28 days continued to be more likely to test positive for COVID-19 than those who had not, in the fortnight up to 26 March 2022.
    • People who reported working outside the home two, three or four days per week were more likely to test positive than those who reported not working outside the home, in the fortnight up to 26 March 2022.
    • The percentage of people testing positive who reported loss of taste or smell remained at low levels in March 2022, after decreasing sharply between December 2021 and January 2022 (during the time when the Omicron variants became most common).

            30 March 2022 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK  

            • Most people who reported having been vaccinated continued to be less likely to test positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) than those who reported not being vaccinated, in the fortnight up to 12 March 2022.

            • People previously infected with COVID-19 continued to be less likely to test positive than those who had not experienced a prior infection, in the fortnight up to 12 March 2022.

            • People who reported that they had travelled abroad in the last 28 days continued to be more likely to test positive for COVID-19 than those who had not, in the fortnight up to 12 March 2022.

            • People working in a care or nursing home were more likely to test positive for COVID-19 in comparison with other working adults, in the fortnight up to 12 March 2022.

            • The risk of re-infection was approximately 10 times higher in the time period when the Omicron variants were most common (20 December 2021 to 20 March 2022), when compared to the time period when the Delta variant was most common (17 May to 19 December 2021).

            • From 2 July 2020 to 20 March 2022, people who were unvaccinated were more likely to be re-infected than people who reported they had been vaccinated.

            2 March 2022 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK  

            • Most people who reported receiving vaccines continued to be less likely to test positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) than those who reported not being vaccinated in the fortnight up to 12 February 2022.

            • People previously infected with COVID-19 continued to be less likely to test positive than those who have not experienced a prior infection in the fortnight up to 12 February 2022.

            • People who reported that they travelled abroad in the last 28 days continued to be more likely to test positive for COVID-19 than those who had not in the fortnight up to 12 February 2022.

            • People who reported working in the education sector continued to be more likely to test positive in comparison with other working adults in the fortnight up to 12 February 2022; this is likely because of the recent high infections among school children.

            • The percentage of people testing positive who reported loss of taste or smell continued to decrease between December 2021 and January 2022.

            • The number of contacts people have with others, both physical and socially distanced, returned to pre-Christmas levels in the fortnight up to 12 February 2022.

            16 February 2022 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK  

            • In the fortnight ending 29 January 2022, people previously infected with coronavirus (COVID-19) continued to be less likely to test positive than people not previously infected.

            • People who had reported receiving first, second and third COVID-19 vaccines (including booster vaccines) were generally less likely to test positive than people who were not vaccinated, in the fortnight ending 29 January 2022.

            • People working in the education sector were more likely to test positive in comparison with other working adults in the fortnight ending 29 January 2022; this is likely because of the recent high infections among school children.

            • The risk of reinfection was approximately 10 times higher in the time period when the Omicron variant was most common (20 December 2021 to 6 February 2022) compared with the time period when the Delta variant was most common (17 May to 19 December 2021).

            • From 2 July 2020 to 6 February 2022, people who were unvaccinated were approximately twice as likely to be reinfected than people who had their second vaccine 14 to 89 days ago.

            2 February 2022 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK 

            Up to 23 January 2022:
            • Among our survey participants, we have seen more reinfections with coronavirus (COVID-19) in the last month since Omicron became the dominant variant compared with the previous 18 months.
            • The viral load in an individual’s second infection, when the second infection was in the Delta or Omicron period, was higher (lower Cycle threshold value) compared to their first infection.
            • There were similar percentages of people reporting symptoms when their second infection was either in the Delta or Omicron dominant periods.
            • The risk of symptoms in an individual’s second infection, when the second infection was in the Delta period, was 1.69 times higher (95% confidence interval: 1.22 times to 2.34 times) compared to their first infection.
            • There was no difference in the risk of symptoms in an individual’s second infection, when the second infection was in the Omicron period compared to their first infection.

            26 January 2022 - Self-reported long COVID after two doses of a coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine in the UK

            • In a sample of UK adults aged 18 to 69 years, receiving two doses of a coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine at least two weeks before a first test-confirmed COVID-19 infection was associated with a 41.1% decrease in the odds of self-reported long COVID at least 12 weeks later, relative to socio-demographically similar study participants who were not vaccinated when infected (Figure 1).

            • This analysis was based on data to 30 November 2021, and longer follow-up time is needed to assess the impact of booster doses and the Omicron variant; furthermore, the observational nature of the analysis means that we cannot say whether COVID-19 vaccination caused subsequent changes in the likelihood of self-reported long COVID.

            • Long COVID symptoms of any severity were reported by 9.5% of double-vaccinated study participants, compared with 14.6% of socio-demographically similar participants who were unvaccinated when infected; the corresponding estimates for long COVID symptoms severe enough to result in limitation to day-to-day activities were 5.5% and 8.7% respectively.

            • There was no statistical evidence that the relationship between vaccination status at the time of infection and the likelihood of subsequently reporting long COVID symptoms differed by whether participants received adenovirus vector (Oxford/AstraZeneca) or mRNA (Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna) vaccines.

            19 January 2022 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK (predictors of positivity, reinfections, symptoms, physical and socially distanced contacts)

            • In the fortnight ending 31 December 2021, people previously infected with coronavirus (COVID-19) continued to be less likely to test positive than people not previously infected, however this effect was smaller than seen in the past.
            • Those who reported receiving one of any COVID-19 vaccines 15 to 90 days ago, a second Pfizer vaccine 15 to 180 days ago, or any three vaccinations (including booster vaccinations) were all less likely to test positive than those who were not vaccinated, in the fortnight ending 31 December 2021; however, these effects are smaller than what we have seen previously.
            • The risk of reinfection was 16 times higher in the Omicron-dominant period (20 December 2021 to 9 January 2022) compared with the Delta-dominant period (17 May to 19 December 2021).
            • From 2 July 2020 to 9 January 2022, people who were unvaccinated were approximately twice as likely to be reinfected than people who had their second vaccine 14 to 89 days ago.
            • From 2 July 2020 to 9 January 2022, people were more likely to be reinfected if they had a lower viral load (higher Ct value) at their first positive infection.
            • Between 9 and 31 December 2021, people with Omicron-compatible infections were substantially less likely than people with Delta-compatible infections to report loss of taste or loss of smell. 

            21 December 2021 - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey, early analysis of characteristics associated with the Omicron variant among Covid-19 infections, UK: 21 December 2021

            • Age: compared with other ages, young children testing positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) are less likely to have infections compatible with the Omicron variant. Those aged in their 20s and 30s with COVID-19, however, are more likely to have infections compatible with the Omicron variant.

            • Deprivation: those infected with COVID-19 who live in more deprived areas are more likely to test positive with infections compatible with the Omicron variant.

            • Urban: those infected with COVID-19 and living in major urban areas and urban cities or towns are more likely to test positive with infections compatible with the Omicron variant compared with those living in rural areas.

            • Ethnicity: there is some evidence to suggest that people who test positive for COVID-19 and report being from ethnic minorities are more likely to test positive with infections compatible with the Omicron variant compared with those who identify themselves as White.

            • Traveling abroad: those who travelled abroad in the last 28 days and test positive for COVID-19 are more likely to test positive for infections compatible with the Omicron variant compared with those who did not travel.

            • Reinfection: those who have previously been infected with COVID-19 and become reinfected are more likely to test positive for an infection compatible with the Omicron variant, compared with those who test positive with their first infections.

            • Vaccination status: those who have received three doses of a vaccine and test positive for COVID-19 are more likely to be infected with infections compatible with the Omicron variant compared with those who are unvaccinated, though individuals who had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine continued to be less likely to test positive for COVID-19, regardless of variant. It is too early to draw conclusions from our data on the effectiveness of vaccines against the Omicron variant.

            16 December 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK (predictors of positivity, reinfections, symptoms, physical and socially distanced contacts)

            • In the fortnight ending 28 November 2021, those who have received at least one dose of a coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine continued to be less likely to test positive for COVID-19 than those not vaccinated; people who reported receiving three vaccinations (including booster vaccinations) were even less likely to test positive than those who had a second dose of AstraZeneca, or a second Pfizer vaccination more than 90 days ago.
            • People working in the education sector continued to be more likely to test positive for COVID-19 in comparison with other working adults in the fortnight ending 28 November 2021; the higher risk is likely related to the recent high infection levels among school-aged children.
            • From 2 July 2020 to 29 November 2021, people who are unvaccinated were approximately three times more likely to be reinfected with COVID-19 than people who had their second vaccination 14 to 89 days ago.
            • In the UK, people testing positive for COVID-19 with a strong positive test continued to be more likely to report "classic" symptoms than gastrointestinal or loss of taste or smell only, in November 2021.
            • Up to 1 December 2021, we identified a very small number of infections consistent with the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) among our survey participants, which is not sufficient to impact the analysis in this bulletin; we will continue to monitor this variant and will report relevant analysis if the Omicron variant becomes more prevalent among the population.

            1 December 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK (predictors of positivity, reinfections)

            Characteristics associated with testing positive from 1 to 14 November 2021:

            • Those who have received at least one dose of a coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine continued to be less likely to test positive for COVID-19 than those not vaccinated; people who reported receiving three vaccinations (including booster vaccinations) were even less likely to test positive than those who had a second dose of Astra Zeneca or Pfizer more than 90 days ago in the fortnight ending 14 November 2021.
            • People working in the education sector continued to be more likely to test positive in comparison to other working adults in the fortnight ending 14 November 2021; the higher risk is likely related to the recent high infection levels among school-aged children.
            • Those who reported that they "never" or only "sometimes" wore a face covering at work or school were more likely to test positive than those who reported that they always wore a face covering at work or school in the fortnight ending 14 November 2021.
            • People who spent more time socialising with others outside their household were more likely to test positive for COVID-19 in the fortnight ending 14 November 2021.

            Reinfections from July 2020 to November 2021:

            • While remaining low overall, the risk of reinfection was higher in the Delta-dominant period (defined in this analysis as after 17 May 2021) than during the Alpha-dominant period (prior to 17 May 2021), as well as for those with a long-term health condition and younger age groups.
            • Risk of reinfection was higher if a participant had a lower viral load or did not report symptoms during their first infection; this may be on account of a weaker immune response in first "milder" infections.

            17 November 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK (predictors of positivity)

            • Those who have received at least one dose of a coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine continued to be less likely to test positive for COVID-19 than those not vaccinated; people who received a booster were even less likely to test positive than those who had a second dose of Astra Zeneca or Pfizer more than 90 days ago in the fortnight ending 6 November 2021.
            • Those living in a household of two or more people continued to be more likely to test positive than those living in single occupancy households in the fortnight ending 6 November 2021.
            • Adults who lived with someone aged 16 years or under were more likely to test positive, and people aged under 70 years who lived with someone aged 70 years or over were less likely to test positive, in comparison to those not living with people of these ages in the fortnight ending 6 November 2021.
            • People working in the education industry sector continued to be more likely to test positive in comparison to those working in other sectors in the fortnight ending 6 November 2021; the higher risk is likely related to the recent high infection levels among school aged children.
            • Those who spent more time socialising outside the home were more likely to test positive for COVID-19 in the fortnight ending 6 November 2021.
            • The number of socially distanced and physical contacts that adults and school-age children reported with people outside their household has continued to increase across the UK since March 2021, although school age children had fewer contacts during the school holidays.

            15 November 2021 - technical article: Analysis of characteristics associated with vaccination uptake

            • People of all ages were less likely to be vaccinated against coronavirus (COVID-19) if they had been infected with COVID-19 previously (more than 120 days ago).
            • For those aged between 18 and 64 years, ethnic minorities (excluding White minorities) were less likely to be vaccinated than those reporting White ethnicity.
            • Younger men in the 18- to 34-year age group were less likely to be vaccinated than younger women, however older men in this age group were more likely to be vaccinated than women.
            • Those aged between 18 and 64 years were less likely to have received a vaccination against COVID-19 if they reported they were not working or were employed but not currently working, compared with those who were working.
            • The likelihood of being vaccinated varied by work sector; people aged 18 to 64 years who worked in hospitality, personal services and transport sectors were less likely to have received a vaccination against COVID-19 than those working in other sectors.
            • Across all age groups, those who lived in more deprived areas were less likely to have received a vaccination against COVID-19, than those who lived in less deprived areas.

            3 November 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK

            Reinfections between July 2020 and October 2021:

            • The estimated rate of reinfections in the UK is low overall (11.9 per 100,000 participant days at risk), and reinfections with a high viral load are even lower (6.1 per 100,000 participant days at risk).
            • The risk of reinfection was higher in the period from 17 May 2021 compared with the period before; this reflects a higher risk of reinfection during the period when the Delta variant of coronavirus (COVID-19) was the dominant strain, but the risk of reinfection remains low.
            • Participants who had a lower viral load in their initial infection were at a higher risk of reinfection compared with participants who had a higher viral load at their initial infection.

            Predictors of positivity between 4 and 17 October 2021:

            • Those living in a household of multiple occupancy continued to be more likely to test positive than single occupancy households.
            • People working in the education sector continued to be more likely to test positive in comparison with those working in other sectors; this is likely related to the continuing higher infection levels among school-aged children.
            • Those who work in a care or nursing home were less likely to test positive in comparison to those who do not.

            28 October 2021 - technical article: predictors of positivity across countries of the UK

            All findings are for the period 11 November 2020 to 16 May 2021, when the the Alpha variant (B.1.1.7) was the most dominant variant.

            • The impact of age on the probability of testing positive differed between England and each of the devolved administrations.
            • The effect of living in more urbanised areas on the probability of testing positive was similar for England and each of the devolved administrations.
            • In Wales, there was no evidence of an association between household size and the likelihood of testing positive; in England, however, people who lived in larger households were more likely to test positive.
            • In Northern Ireland, those who lived in larger households were more likely to test positive, similar to that seen in England.
            • In Scotland, positivity increased with household size to a greater extent for non-White individuals and to a lesser extent for White individuals; compared with England, where positivity increased with household size regardless of ethnicity.
            • In Scotland, those who lived in a deprived area and a multigenerational household were more likely to test positive than those who did not live in a multigenerational household; compared with England, where positivity increased with deprivation regardless of household type.

            25 October 2021 - Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination and self-reported long COVID in the UK

            • Receiving a first coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination was associated with an initial 13% decrease in the likelihood of self-reported long COVID (symptoms persisting for at least 12 weeks after first having COVID-19 that were not explained by something else) among study participants aged 18 to 69 years in the UK who had confirmed COVID-19 prior to vaccination, using data to 5 September 2021.
            • However, it is unclear from the data whether the improvement in self-reported long COVID symptoms after receiving the first vaccination was sustained over time until receiving the second vaccination.
            • Receiving a second COVID-19 vaccination was associated with 9% decrease in the likelihood of self-reported long COVID, relative to having received the first vaccination, and there was statistical evidence of a sustained improvement after this.
            • There was no statistical evidence of differences in post-vaccination trends of self-reported long COVID between participants who received an adenovirus vector (Oxford/AstraZeneca) vaccine and those who received an mRNA (Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna) vaccine.
            • There was also no statistical evidence of differences in trends according to socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, ethnic group and area deprivation) or health-related factors (self-reported health status not related to COVID-19, and whether ever hospitalised with acute COVID-19).
            • The observational nature of the study means that we cannot say whether COVID-19 vaccination caused subsequent changes in the likelihood of self-reported long COVID; also, study follow-up after receiving the second vaccination was limited, so long-term associations between COVID-19 vaccination and self-reported long COVID remain unknown.

            21 October 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in countries of the UK

            • Those living in a household of three or more people, as well as those living in a multigenerational household were more likely to test positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) in the two weeks up to 3 October 2021.
            • People working in either the manufacturing or education industry sectors were more likely to test positive in comparison to those working in other sectors in the two weeks up to 3 October 2021; the higher likelihood for those working in education is likely related to the high infection levels among school aged children.
            • Across the UK, people testing positive for COVID-19 with a strong positive test continued to be more likely to report "classic" symptoms than gastrointestinal or loss of taste or smell only.
            • In the UK, the most commonly reported symptoms continued to be cough, fatigue and headache.
            • The number of socially distanced and physical contacts that adults and school-age children reported with people outside their household has continued to increase across the UK since March 2021, although school age children had fewer contacts during the school holidays.

            18 October 2021 - technical article: Impact of vaccination on testing positive in the UK

            • Vaccination significantly reduced the risk of people testing positive during both the Alpha-dominant period and the Delta-dominant period.
            • Vaccine effectiveness was reduced in the Delta-dominant period compared with the Alpha-dominant period, particularly in preventing infections with symptoms.
            • Two doses of either Pfizer-BioNTech or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines provided a similar level of protection to prior natural infection when the Delta variant was dominant.
            • Two doses of either vaccine provided significantly greater protection than one dose across all analyses.

            6 October - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in countries of the UK: reinfections

            • The estimated number of reinfections in the UK between July 2020 and September 2021, is low overall (11.8 per 100,000 participant days at risk), and reinfections more likely to cause serious illness are even lower (5.5 per 100,000 participant days at risk).
            • Between July 2020 and September 2021, the risk of reinfection was higher in the period after 17 May 2021 compared with the period before; this reflects a higher risk of reinfection during the period when the Delta variant of coronavirus (COVID-19) was the dominant strain.
            • Participants who had a lower viral load in their initial infection were at a higher risk of reinfection compared with participants who had a higher viral load at their initial infection.

            27 September 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in countries of the UK: predictors of positivity

            • People who had received one or two doses of a coronavirus vaccine were less likely to test positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) in the fortnight ending 11 September 2021.
            • People living in a household of three or more occupants were more likely to test positive for COVID-19 in the fortnight ending 11 September 2021.
            • Those in younger age groups were more likely to test positive for COVID-19 in the fortnight ending 11 September 2021.
            • People who never wore a face covering in enclosed spaces were more likely to test positive for COVID-19 in the fortnight ending 11 September 2021.
            • Those who reported socially distanced contact with 11 or more people aged 18 to 69 years outside their household were more likely to test positive for COVID-19, in the fortnight ending 11 September 2021.

            22 September - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in countries of the UK

            • Across the UK, people testing positive for COVID-19 with a strong positive test were more likely to report "classic" symptoms than gastrointestinal or loss of taste or smell only.
            • In the UK, the most commonly reported symptoms continue to be cough, fatigue and headache.
            • The number of socially distanced and physical contacts that adults and school-age children reported with people outside their household has continued to increase across the UK since March 2021.
            • There is no statistical evidence of a difference in the percentage of people testing positive between adults working in patient-facing healthcare roles and all other adults in the latest period up to 3 September 2021.

            16 September 2021 - Technical article: Updated estimates of the prevalence of post-acute symptoms among people with coronavirus (COVID-19) in the UK: 26 April 2020 to 1 August 2021

            • Experimental estimates of the prevalence of symptoms that remain 12-weeks after coronavirus (COVID-19) infection (commonly referred to as "long COVID") range from 3.0% based on tracking specific symptoms, to 11.7% based on self-classification of long COVID, using data to 1 August 2021.
            • This analysis focusses on the number of Coronavirus Infection Survey (CIS) participants with post-acute symptoms out of those with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, unlike our monthly prevalence publication where the denominator is the national population (irrespective of infection).
            • Approach 1: Prevalence of any symptom at a point in time after infection. Among study participants with COVID-19, 5.0% reported any of 12 common symptoms 12 to 16 weeks after infection; however, prevalence was 3.4% in a control group of participants without a positive test for COVID-19, demonstrating the relative commonness of these symptoms in the population at any given time.
            • Approach 2: Prevalence of continuous symptoms after infection. Among study participants with COVID-19, 3.0% experienced any of 12 common symptoms for a continuous period of at least 12 weeks from infection, compared with 0.5% in the control group; this estimate of 3.0% is based on a similar approach to the one we published in April 2021 (13.7%), but is substantially lower because of a combination of longer study follow-up time and updated statistical methodology. The corresponding prevalence estimate when considering only participants who were symptomatic at the acute phase of infection was 6.7%.
            • Approach 3: Prevalence of self-reported long COVID. An estimated 11.7% of study participants with COVID-19 would describe themselves as experiencing long COVID (based on self-classification rather than reporting one of the 12 common symptoms) 12 weeks after infection, and may therefore meet the clinical case definition of post-COVID-19 syndrome, falling to 7.5% when considering long COVID that resulted in limitation to day-to-day activities; these percentages increased to 17.7% and 11.8% respectively when considering only participants who were symptomatic at the acute phase of infection.
            • Irrespective of the approach to measurement, post-acute symptom prevalence was highest in females, adults aged 50 to 69 years, people with a pre-existing health condition, and those with signs of high viral load at the time of infection.

            25 August 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in countries of the UK

            • The number of socially distanced and physical contacts that adults and school-age children reported with people outside their household has continued to increase across the UK since March 2021.
            • The percentage of those working in patient-facing healthcare roles testing positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) has increased by a similar or smaller amount compared with other adults since late June 2021.
            • Analysis of COVID-19 reinfections between 26 April 2020 and 14 August 2021 found that, on average, the viral load is lower for the second infection compared with the first infection.

            28 July 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in countries of the UK

            • In the weeks prior to 12 July 2021, the percentage of people testing positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) in the UK increased in both those working and not working in patient facing healthcare roles; the increase was greater in those not working in patient facing roles.
            • The number of socially distanced and physical contacts that adults and school-age children reported with people outside their household increased from March 2021 up to 12 July 2021 across the UK.
            • In July 2021, 61% (95% confidence interval: 57% to 64%) of people testing positive for COVID-19 in the UK with a strong positive test reported symptoms.
            • In the UK, the most commonly reported symptoms have consistently been cough, fatigue and headache; the least commonly reported symptoms have consistently been abdominal pain, diarrhoea and nausea or vomiting.
            • Analysis of COVID-19 reinfections between 26 April 2020 and 17 July 2021 found that, on average, the viral load is lower for the second infection compared with the first infection.

            21 July 2021 - Coronavirus and the social impacts of ‘long COVID’ on people’s lives in Great Britain: 7 April to 13 June 2021

            • Over the period 7 April to 13 June 2021, 6.2% of adults said they may have experienced long COVID since the start of the pandemic; this includes 3.6% who said they had experienced long COVID, and 2.6% who said they were unsure if they had experienced long COVID; a further 10.1% reported they had at some point had a positive test for or believed they'd had coronavirus (COVID-19) but had not experienced long COVID.
            • Almost 6 in 10 (57%) of those who may have experienced long COVID reported this had negatively affected their general well-being; around 4 in 10 (39%) reported it had negatively affected their ability to exercise and 3 in 10 (30%) reported it had negatively affected their work.
            • Of those who may have experienced long COVID, personal well-being levels across all four personal well-being indicators were lower compared with those who reported they'd not had COVID-19 (in any form); anxiety (4.6 for long COVID, 3.8 for not had COVID-19), life satisfaction (6.4 for long COVID, 7.1 for not had COVID-19), feeling that the things done in life were worthwhile (6.9 for long COVID, 7.4 for not had COVID-19) and happiness (6.5 for long COVID, 7.1 for not had COVID-19).
            • Of those who may have experienced long COVID, 3 in 10 (30%) reported experiencing moderate to severe depressive symptoms in the last 2 weeks compared with 16% of those who had not had COVID-19; a quarter (25%) were likely to have some form of anxiety compared with 15% of those who had not had COVID.
            • Nearly 1 in 2 (44%) of working adults who may have experienced long COVID reported that their work had been affected by the coronavirus pandemic, compared with around 1 in 3 (36%) among working adults who had not had COVID-19.
            • Of those who may have experienced long COVID, almost a quarter (22%) reported their household finances had been affected by the pandemic compared with 13% of those who had not had COVID-19.

            13 July 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in countries of the UK: disability

            • There is no statistical evidence of a difference in the likelihood of testing positive for COVID-19 between disabled people and non-disabled people in England, between 25 February and 16 May 2021. There were relatively low COVID-19 infection levels within England during this time.
            • Our analysis suggests that in England, non-disabled and disabled people who are limited a little have had more socially distanced contacts than disabled people who are limited a lot between 21 February and 15 May 2021; there is limited evidence of a difference in the number of physical contacts between non-disabled and disabled people during this time.
            • Overall, the number of people reporting socially distanced and physical contacts with others, increased among both disabled and non-disabled people between 21 February and 15 May 2021.

            30 June 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in countries of the UK

            • In the weeks prior to 14 June 2021, the percentage of the population testing positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) in the UK continued to be low for those in patient-facing healthcare job roles, but has increased in those not in patient-facing healthcare job roles.
            • The number of socially distanced and physical contacts that adults and school-age children reported with people outside their household has increased since March 2021 up to 14 June 2021 across the UK.
            • In June 2021, 61% (95% confidence interval: 52% to 69%) of people who tested positive for COVID-19 with a strong positive test reported symptoms within 35 days of the test in the UK.
            • The most commonly reported symptoms among people testing positive for COVID-19 with a strong positive test were cough, fatigue and headache.

            29 June 2021 - technical article: analysis of reinfections of COVID-19

            • Instances of reinfection with coronavirus (COVID-19) were rare in the survey.
            • There is evidence that COVID-19 reinfections are milder than initial infections.
            • Viral load was lower in reinfections than initial infections.
            • Self-reported symptoms were less common in episodes of reinfection than in initial infections.

            17 June 2021 - technical article: analysis of positivity after vaccination, June 2021

            • The risk of identifying a new infection following vaccination was highest during the first 21 days after the first vaccination, after that the risk strongly decreased.
            • Those who became infected post vaccination were less likely to have symptoms and less likely to have a high viral load compared with individuals who tested positive but have not been vaccinated.
            • Characteristics linked to an increased risk of positivity post vaccination include individuals aged under 40 years, individuals working in patient-facing healthcare roles and in care homes, larger household size and greater deprivation; there was a trend towards lower positivity rates post-vaccination in rural areas.
            • Ongoing monitoring of infection post vaccination is essential.
            • This is the first stage in an analysis to explore positivity following vaccination. We welcome input and dialogue from users on its benefit and how we can continue to explore our data. We will continue to publish here and in academic journals.

            4 June 2021 - Prevalence of ongoing symptoms following coronavirus (COVID-19) infection in the UK

            • At 2 May 2021, an estimated 1.0 million people living in private households in the UK (1.6%) were experiencing self-reported long COVID (symptoms persisting for more than four weeks after the first suspected coronavirus (COVID-19) infection that were not explained by something else).
            • The estimates presented in this analysis relate to self-reported long COVID, as experienced by study participants who responded to a representative survey, rather than clinically diagnosed ongoing symptomatic COVID-19 or post-COVID-19 syndrome in the full population.
            • Of people with self-reported long COVID, 869,000 first had (or suspected they had) COVID-19 at least 12 weeks previously, and 376,000 first had (or suspected they had) COVID-19 at least one year previously.
            • Self-reported long COVID symptoms were adversely affecting the day-to-day activities of 650,000 people, with 192,000 of these individuals reporting that their ability to undertake their day-to-day activities had been limited a lot.
            • Fatigue was the most common symptom reported as part of individuals' experience of long COVID (547,000 people), followed by shortness of breath (405,000), muscle ache (313,000), and difficulty concentrating (285,000).
            • As a proportion of the UK population, prevalence of self-reported long COVID was greatest in people aged 35 to 69 years, females, those living in the most deprived areas, those working in health or social care, and those with another activity-limiting health condition or disability; prevalence was lowest in people of Asian ethnic background.
            • The raised prevalence of self-reported long COVID among health and social care workers compared with those in other sectors was largely explained by other (non-employment) socio-demographic characteristics and the risk of initial infection.

            20 May 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in countries of the UK

            • In the weeks prior to 2 May 2021, the percentage of people testing positive for the coronavirus (COVID-19) appears to have decreased in both patient-facing and non-patient-facing job roles in the UK.
            • The number of socially distanced and physical contacts that adults and school-age children reported with people outside their household has increased since March 2021 up to 2 May 2021 across the UK.
            • In April 2021, 53% (95% confidence intervals: 45% to 60%) of people who tested positive for COVID-19 with a strong positive test reported symptoms within 35 days of the test in the UK.

            5 May - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in countries of the UK

            • Transmission of the coronavirus (COVID-19) is a complex, continuous risk that can occur in any setting; although work location, mode of travel to work, and ability to socially distance at work were associated with the likelihood of testing positive, these factors alone cannot be assumed to be the only cause of the spread of the virus.
            • Between 1 December 2020 and 4 April 2021, over half the people who tested positive for COVID-19 with a strong positive test reported having one or more symptoms within 35 days of the test in England, Wales and Scotland; just under half reported symptoms in Northern Ireland.
            • Across all four UK countries, cough, fatigue and headache were the most common symptoms reported in strong positive COVID-19 cases between 1 December 2020 and 4 April 2021.

            22 April 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in countries of the UK

            • In recent weeks, there is evidence that the percentage testing positive for the coronavirus (COVID-19) appears to have levelled off for those in both patient-facing and non-patient-facing job roles.
            • The number of socially distanced and physical contacts that adults and school-age children reported with people outside their household has increased through March 2021 across the UK.

            8 April 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England

            • In March 2021, 47% (95% confidence intervals: 42% to 53%) of people testing positive for the coronavirus (COVID-19) in the UK with a strong positive test reported symptoms and 53% (95% confidence intervals: 47% to 58%) did not report having any symptoms.
            • Fatigue, headache and cough were the most commonly reported symptoms from people who tested positive for COVID-19 with a strong positive test between 1 December 2020 and 22 March 2021.
            • Nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhoea were less commonly reported symptoms.
            • Of those testing positive for COVID-19 with a strong positive test, 18% (95% confidence intervals: 13% to 22%) of people reported a loss or taste of smell only.

            1 April 2021 - Prevalence of ongoing symptoms following coronavirus (COVID-19) infection in the UK ("Long COVID")

            • Over the four-week period ending 6 March 2021, an estimated 1.1 million people in private households in the UK reported experiencing long COVID (symptoms persisting more than four weeks after the first suspected coronavirus (COVID-19) episode that are not explained by something else).
            • The estimates presented in this analysis relate to self-reported long COVID, as experienced by study participants, rather than clinically diagnosed ongoing symptomatic COVID-19 or post-COVID-19 syndrome. There is no universally agreed definition of long COVID, but it covers a broad range of symptoms such as fatigue, muscle pain, and difficulty concentrating.
            • Self-reported long COVID symptoms were adversely affecting the day-to-day activities of 674,000 people in private households in the UK, with 196,000 of these individuals reporting that their ability to undertake their day-to-day activities had been limited a lot.
            • Of people with self-reported long COVID, 697,000 first had (or suspected they had) COVID-19 at least 12 weeks previously, and 70,000 first had (or suspected they had) COVID-19 at least one year previously.
            • Prevalence rates of self-reported long COVID were greatest in people aged 35 to 69 years, females, those living in the most deprived areas, those working in health or social care, and those with a pre-existing, activity-limiting health condition; however, it is not possible to say whether these patterns are because of differences in the risk of coronavirus infection or susceptibility to experiencing long COVID following infection.
            • These estimates provide a measure of the prevalence of self-reported long COVID across the whole population, and reflect both the risk of being infected with coronavirus and the risk of developing long COVID following infection; to investigate the second of these components, we examined the duration of self-reported symptoms following confirmed infection.
            • Among a sample of over 20,000 study participants who tested positive for COVID-19 between 26 April 2020 and 6 March 2021, 13.7% continued to experience symptoms for at least 12 weeks. This was eight times higher than in a control group of participants who are unlikely to have had COVID-19, suggesting that the prevalence of ongoing symptoms following coronavirus infection is higher than in the general population.
            • Of study participants who tested positive for COVID-19, symptom prevalence at 12 weeks post-infection was higher for female participants (14.7%) than male participants (12.7%) and was highest among those aged 25 to 34 years (18.2%).

              25 March 2021 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England

              • In recent weeks, there is evidence that the percentage testing positive for the coronavirus (COVID-19) has continued to decrease for those in both patient-facing and non-patient-facing job roles.
              • The number of socially distanced and physical contacts that adults and school-age children reported with people outside their household decreased at the start of the year and remained low in early March 2021.
              • Disabled people who were limited a lot in their daily activities were less likely to test positive for COVID-19 than non-disabled people.

              22 February 2021 - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey: characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England

              • This analysis covers the period from 1 September 2020 to 7 January 2021. During this period of time, there was a national lockdown in England between 5 November and 1 December 2020 and varying local tier restrictions in place; there was also a significant rise in the positivity rate across the country, including that related to the new variant. This analysis should be understood in that context as opposed to the reducing prevalence currently being experienced.
              • The general contact individuals have with others both in and out of work will contribute to their likelihood of testing positive. Within every occupation group, there were people who were working from home, some who found social distancing at work easy and those who found it hard. These factors in part explain the differences in testing positive between occupations.
              • After adjusting for differences across occupations and reported ability to socially distance in the workplace and work from home, there was no statistical evidence of a difference in the likelihood of testing positive for the coronavirus (COVID-19) between the majority of occupations. For nearly all occupations there is no statistical evidence of difference with at least 15 of the other 24 occupation groups.
              • This analysis shows that for 25 occupations, the likelihood of testing positive for COVID-19 at some time between 1 September 2020 and 7 January 2021 ranged from 2.1% to 4.8.% and that the different occupations were largely distributed uniformly across this continuum. The mean likelihood of testing positive for COVID-19 across the 25 occupations was 3.9%, and over half of these occupations had likelihoods of testing positive at some time between 1 September 2020 and 7 January 2021 of between 3.5% and 4.2%.
              • Pairwise comparisons of the probability of testing positive between individual occupations show that there is no difference between the majority of occupations. To illustrate this a matrix of the comparison between each occupation with every other occupation is presented. This shows that 226 of the 300 comparisons were not significant.
              • Evidence of difference presents as a continuum, which can be seen in the comparisons between different occupations. Within this, there are a group of occupations at the upper end of the continuum, that have no significant difference with the majority of other occupations, but do show a higher probability of testing positive compared with some of those at the lower end. At the upper end are caring personal service occupations, protective service occupations, teaching and other education professionals, secretarial and related occupations, and other managers and proprietors; while at the lower end are skilled agricultural and related trades; science, research, engineering and technology professionals; business, media and public service professionals; textiles, printing and other skilled trades.
              • This is the first stage in an analysis to explore the impact of occupation. We welcome input and dialogue from users on its benefit and how we can continue to explore our data. We will continue to publish here and in academic journals.

              9 February 2021 - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey: characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, countries of the UK, 9 February 2021

              • In England, 47% of people who tested positive for COVID-19 (95% confidence intervals: 46% to 48%) reported having any symptoms.
              • In Wales, 55% of people who tested positive for COVID-19 (95% confidence intervals: 49% to 62%) reported having any symptoms.
              • In Northern Ireland, 38% of people who tested positive for COVID-19 (95% confidence intervals: 31% to 46%) reported having any symptoms.
              • In Scotland, 47% of people who tested positive for COVID-19 (95% confidence intervals: 41% to 54%) reported having any symptoms.
              • Cough, fatigue and headache were the most commonly reported symptoms from people who tested positive between 1 October 2020 and 30 January 2021 for all four countries of the UK.
              • Abdominal pain, diarrhoea and nausea were less commonly reported symptoms.

              27 January 2021 - Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey: characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England, 27 January 2021

              • In recent weeks, there is evidence that the percentage testing positive for the coronavirus (COVID-19) has decreased in non-patient facing job roles but increased amongst those in patient-facing roles in England.
              • The largest differences in reported symptoms between the new variant compatible positives and those not compatible with the new UK variant were found in cough, sore throat, fatigue and myalgia.
              • The number of socially distanced and physical contacts that adults and school age children had with people outside their household decreased in January 2021.
              • Of those in school Year 12 to 24 years old, the highest percentage testing positive was among those who are employed.

              30 December 2020 COVID-19 Infection Survey: estimates of COVID-19 cases to 23 December for England, regions of England and by cases compatible with the new variant

              21 December 2020 - COVID-19 Infection Survey Ct analysis

              14 December 2020 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England and antibody data for the UK: December 2020

              • Looking in more detail at those testing positive for COVID-19 in England on a nose and throat swab, there is evidence that rates of positivity have decreased in those in non-patient-facing roles, and those in patient-facing roles aged under 35 years in the most recent week.
              • Across regions, people from the "Other" ethnic groups had the highest risk of testing positive compared with those in the "White" ethnic group in the following occupations: personal services, social care, and the arts, entertainment and recreation industry.

              24 November 2020 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England and antibody data for the UK: November 2020

              • In the most recent weeks, there is evidence that positivity rates are higher among those aged under 35 years working in patient-facing roles compared with other individuals, based on analysis of positive nose and throat swab results.

              27 October 2020 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England: October 2020

              • From 28 September to 11 October 2020, around a third of those who tested positive for COVID-19 reported any evidence of symptoms at the time of their test.
              • From 25 September to 08 October 2020, 17- to 24-year-olds have higher positivity rates in both the higher and lower rate regions, however the difference from other age groups is much greater in the higher rate regions.
              • Urban areas in England have higher positivity rates than rural areas, with 0.70% of the community population in these areas testing positive for COVID-19 between 27 September and 10 October 2020 (95% confidence interval: 0.56% to 0.88%) while in rural areas 0.47% tested positive in the same period (95% confidence interval: 0.35% to 0.62%).
              • In the most recent fortnight (25 September to 08 October 2020) we no longer see a difference in positivity rates depending on travel abroad.

              28 September 2020 - characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England, including positivity trends over time in different subgroups

              • Between 23 July and 10 September, COVID-19 Infection rates have increased primarily in the least deprived areas within each region.

              • Positivity rates have increased over time amongst those aged under 35 years who had socially-distanced direct contact with six or more people aged 18 to 69 years, suggesting socially-distanced direct contact in younger age groups is an increasingly important factor in contracting COVID-19.

              • In recent weeks, COVID-19 positivity rates have been higher amongst people who have travelled abroad, although increases are seen in both those who have and have not travelled.

              • There is no evidence that working location is driving the greater increase in positivity rate in younger age groups in recent weeks.

              • There is evidence that Asian or Asian British individuals were more likely to have ever tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a blood test than White individuals, suggesting they were more likely to have had COVID-19 in the past.

              18 August 2020 - characteristics of people testing positive for the coronavirus

              • There is evidence that Asian or Asian British individuals were more likely to test positive for COVID-19 than White individuals over the most recent eight weeks of the study, and there is also some evidence to suggest a higher percentage of individuals from ethnic minorities have had COVID-19 in the past.

              • Those in one-person households were more likely to test positive for COVID-19 on a nose and throat swab than individuals in two-person households over the latest eight-week period of the study, but there was no evidence of differences for larger households.

              • It is not possible to say whether those working in patient-facing healthcare roles were more likely to test positive for COVID-19 than other individuals based on swabs taken over the most recent eight-week period of the study, although there is evidence to suggest this was not the case earlier in our study.

              • A higher percentage of those in patient-facing healthcare roles or resident-facing social care roles tested positive for antibodies, indicating past infection, than individuals not working in these roles.

              • While those who have symptoms are more likely to test positive on nose and throat swabs than those without symptoms, out of those who have ever tested positive for COVID-19 on nose and throat swabs over the whole period of our study just 28% reported any evidence of symptoms around the time of their positive swab test.

              • There is no evidence to suggest differences in the likelihood of people of different ages testing positive for COVID-19 on nose and throat swabs over the most recent eight-week period of the study, but there is some limited evidence to suggest a smaller proportion of older people within community settings test positive for COVID-19 antibodies, indicating they have had COVID-19 in the past.

              • There is no evidence to suggest differences in the likelihood of males and females testing positive for COVID-19 on nose and throat swabs over the most recent eight-week period of the study nor evidence of differences in the percentage of people of either sex testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies, indicating they have had COVID-19 in the past.

              • It is not possible to say whether there were differences in the likelihood of testing positive for COVID-19 on a nose and throat swab over the most recent eight-week period of the study based on working location nor whether there were differences in the percentage of individuals testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies by working location, indicating they have had COVID-19 in the past.

              7 July 2020 - characteristics of those testing positive on a nose and throat swab

              • Individuals working outside the home show higher rates of positive swab tests than those who work from home.
              • Over the study period, infection rates are higher for those working in patient-facing healthcare or resident-facing social care roles than for people not working in these roles.
              • There is some evidence to suggest that infection rates are lower in one- and two-person households than in larger households.
              • While those who have symptoms are more likely to test positive than those without symptoms, out of those within our study who have ever tested positive for COVID-19, 33% reported any evidence of symptoms around the time of their positive swab test.
              • There is evidence to suggest that infection rates are higher among people who have reported coming into recent contact with a known case of the coronavirus than those who have had no reported contact with potential cases.
              • It is too early to say whether COVID-19 infection rates differ between ethnic groups because the number of people testing positive in groups other than the White ethnic group are very small, although antibody test results provide an indication that individuals identifying as White are less likely to have had COVID-19 in the past than non-white ethnic groups.